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Peter J. Marinescu, Susan C. van den Heever, Max Heikenfeld, Andrew I. Barrett, Christian Barthlott, Corinna Hoose, Jiwen Fan, Ann M. Fridlind, Toshi Matsui, Annette K. Miltenberger, Philip Stier, Benoit Vie, Bethan A. White, and Yuwei Zhang

CCN concentrations is sensitive to boundary layer moisture (e.g., Fan et al. 2007 ), convective available potential energy (CAPE; Lee et al. 2008 ; Storer et al. 2010 ), and wind shear ( Lee et al. 2008 ; Fan et al. 2009 ). Case study simulations, which often provide more realism than idealized simulations, have also been used to assess the impacts of environmental parameters. For example, mesoscale convective systems in environments with different relative humidity ( Khain et al. 2005 ; Fan

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Yun Lin, Yuan Wang, Bowen Pan, Jiaxi Hu, Yangang Liu, and Renyi Zhang

( Fig. 9c ) because less moisture is transported to the cloud region owing to the weakened updraft. As a result, the shallow cumuli are suppressed by ARE, as reflected by a lower cloudiness and smaller LWP ( Fig. 6 ) as well as the negative changes in the cloud water content ( Fig. 9d ). The positive changes in the cloud water content during the DCC period ( Fig. 9d ) are associated with the enhanced atmospheric instability, since the convective available potential energy (CAPE) prior to the DCC

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Wojciech W. Grabowski

in nature. Short (e.g., 1–2 h) small-domain single-cloud simulations with open lateral boundaries and initiated in an idealized way (e.g., through a temperature or moisture perturbation, like a buoyant bubble) are not appropriate because they merely reproduce initial cloud response and exclude realistic interactions between clouds and their environment. Examples of such simulations include those of Khain and Pokrovsky (2004) , Khain et al. (2005) , and Teller and Levin (2006) , among many

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Yan Yang, Jiwen Fan, L. Ruby Leung, Chun Zhao, Zhanqing Li, and Daniel Rosenfeld

the mountaintop area. The water vapor near the surface in the plain contributes directly to that over the mountain owing to moisture transport by the valley breeze. The reduction near the surface of the plain is only about 1% ( Figs. 9c and 10c ), while the reduction is a couple of times larger over the mountaintop area ( Figs. 9c and 10d ), suggesting the significant contribution of the weakened valley breeze to the large reduction of the moisture over the mountaintop area. Since the moisture

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Jie Peng, Zhanqing Li, Hua Zhang, Jianjun Liu, and Maureen Cribb

and AOD for liquid clouds is a clear manifestation of the first type of AIE because of the competition for moisture, which results in smaller liquid droplets. Again, such a stark contrast in the response of cloud microphysics (between ice and liquid) to aerosols cannot be explained by large-scale dynamics alone and agrees well with the theories proposed concerning AIEs. The effect of aerosols on cloud geometry and microphysics undoubtedly affects CRF. SW and LW CRF at the TOA for each CloudSat

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Jiwen Fan, Yuan Wang, Daniel Rosenfeld, and Xiaohong Liu

. Despite the microphysical instability arising from the WBF process, mixed-phase clouds have a self-maintaining feedback pathway between liquid water, radiation, and turbulence, which explains their persistence ( Morrison et al. 2011 ). Supercooled liquid water leads to strong longwave radiative cooling near the cloud top, which decreases static stability and enhances turbulent updrafts and then condensational growth of droplets ( Curry 1986 ; Solomon et al. 2011 ). In the Arctic, frequent moisture

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Baolin Jiang, Bo Huang, Wenshi Lin, and Suishan Xu

EXTREME experiments. Less moisture transport to the typhoon center in these two experiments was used to explain the 10-km shift in their rainfall peaks toward the periphery. Finally, in the EXTREME simulation, the enhancement of vapor condensation produced additional small cloud water with low collision rates at the periphery, and a greater cloud water mixing ratio favored cloud water evaporation. This prevented vapor advection to the typhoon’s center, resulting in the stagnation of vapor content at

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Jianjun Liu, Zhanqing Li, and Maureen Cribb

ω (black dots and line). Figure 5c shows that slightly increases as LTS increases. This is possible because moisture that has evaporated from the sea surface accumulates and gradually reaches saturation. More water vapor is supplied to the atmosphere, which decreases the competition for water vapor between CCN activation of aerosols, resulting in more CCN and cloud droplets when there is an inversion at the top of the boundary layer ( Su et al. 2010 ; Dong et al. 2015 ). As ω increases

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Luke B. Hande, C. Hoose, and C. Barthlott

colder temperatures compared to the other freezing modes. The different ice nucleation processes depend primarily on environmental moisture and temperature, but particle properties (size and surface characteristics) and, in the case of contact freezing, droplet size and electrical charges, play a role. Hoose and Möhler (2012) state that the importance of particle size for contact freezing is not clear. In terms of particle type, recent studies suggest it has a significant influence on its ability

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Stacey Kawecki, Geoffrey M. Henebry, and Allison L. Steiner

moisture from the Gulf of Mexico to the north and has been connected with severe weather systems in the central United States. Prior to the 27 May 2013 event, the jet transports surface emissions and resulting oxidation products and aerosol from the urban regions northward. This influence is apparent in Fig. 2d , where visible plumes from the nearby urban areas extend from the point of origin (e.g., Omaha, NE, and Kansas City, MO) to the north as a result of the jet direction. Aloft, the large

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