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Hailan Wang, Siegfried Schubert, Max Suarez, and Randal Koster

our understanding of the model behavior in representing the linkage between SST and U.S. drought as well as the role of soil moisture. The recent modeling efforts initiated by the United States contribution to the World Climate Research Programme’s Climate Variability Study (USCLIVAR) drought working group ( Schubert et al. 2009 ) provide an excellent opportunity to investigate the mechanisms through which the leading SST patterns affect the regional hydroclimate in the current generation of AGCMs

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Bunmei Taguchi, Hisashi Nakamura, Masami Nonaka, and Shang-Ping Xie

applicable to the KOE region, where the oceanic frontal zone exhibits a more complex structure than in the APFZ ( Nonaka et al. 2006 ). Furthermore, the air–sea heat and moisture exchanges are subject to the seasonally dependent influences of the adjacent Eurasian continent in the form of summer and winter monsoons. Another important scientific issue that remains unsolved is whether the zonally confined surface baroclinic zone in the KOE region can exert a significant impact on the mean storm

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Shoshiro Minobe, Masato Miyashita, Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, Hiroki Tokinaga, and Shang-Ping Xie

-h forecast give almost identical results. Consistency between the analysis and forecast fields is confirmed by the fact that the analysis SLP is virtually the same as the 24-h forecast SLP. We use the monthly fields of vertically integrated moisture fluxes and three-dimensional atmospheric heating rate from the Japanese 25-year Reanalysis Project (JRA-25) ( Onogi et al. 2007 ) produced jointly by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) and the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry

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Young-Oh Kwon, Michael A. Alexander, Nicholas A. Bond, Claude Frankignoul, Hisashi Nakamura, Bo Qiu, and Lu Anne Thompson

atmosphere between 25° and 45°N. This heat transfer, mainly via latent and sensible energy fluxes during winter, is concentrated near the WBC in each basin [i.e., the Kuroshio in the North Pacific and the Gulf Stream (GS) in the North Atlantic], indicating that these oceanographic features play a key role in the climate system. Strong ocean-to-atmosphere fluxes of heat and moisture influence the mean climate by maintaining the surface baroclinicity and energizing storms, anchoring the major storm tracks

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Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, Shoshiro Minobe, and Shang-Ping Xie

weaker than in that in CNTL. The precipitation maximum and CAPE tongue quickly move away from the analysis domain by T + 36 h. These results suggest a mechanism by which a convective precipitation band forms along the SST front in CNTL. Cumulus precipitation intensity depends on convective instability and moisture content. CAPE is larger in the CNTL than SMTH composites in Fig. 8 . We now examine the evolution of the moisture budget for an air column from the surface to 10 hPa, where q is the

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Masanori Konda, Hiroshi Ichikawa, Hiroyuki Tomita, and Meghan F. Cronin

north–south contrast of the ocean surface structure can affect the modification of the air mass through changes in the exchange of heat, moisture, and momentum. The large heat flux in the KE region is correlated with the basin-scale air–sea coupling systems such as the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) and other subsequent modes ( Mantua et al. 1997 ; Bond et al. 2003 ; Kwon and Deser 2007 ; Di Lorenzo et al. 2008 ). Previous studies have pointed out that the atmospheric circulation field

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Jianping Li, Zhiwei Wu, Zhihong Jiang, and Jinhai He

a phenomenon are still controversial, larger thermal gradient and increased moisture transport are believed to be two principal factors responsible for the enhanced ISM. Kumar et al. (1999) and Hu et al. (2000) revealed that increased surface air temperatures Ts over Eurasia in winter and spring may favor the enhanced land–ocean thermal gradient conducive to a strong ISM. Meehl and Arblaster (2003) and Ueda et al. (2006) suggested that a larger moisture flux convergence resulting from a

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Jeffrey Shaman, R. M. Samelson, and Eric Skyllingstad

d ) and the 2003 and 2004 time series heat flux plots ( Figs. 1e and 2e ), which are representative of other individual years, show that event days are typically isolated 1–2-day occurrences. In fact, 81% (77%) of the high sensible (latent) heat events last for less than 3 days. These findings indicate that a large amount of the wintertime surface fluxes of heat and moisture occur during a relatively small number of days. In addition, these high flux days are often 1–2-day events and thus are

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Takeaki Sampe, Hisashi Nakamura, Atsushi Goto, and Wataru Ohfuchi

1. Introduction Synoptic-scale transient eddies are one of the essential components of the tropospheric general circulation, because they transport a substantial amount of heat, moisture, and angular momentum meridionally. The momentum transport maintains midlatitude westerlies, which can be organized as an eddy-driven jet, called a “polar front jet” (“PFJ”; also called a subpolar jet; Palmén and Newton 1969 ). The eddy activity reaches a maximum over the midlatitude oceans where it forms

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Masami Nonaka, Hisashi Nakamura, Bunmei Taguchi, Nobumasa Komori, Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, and Koutarou Takaya

; Nakamura et al. 2004 , 2008 ) that the enhanced storm-track activity may in turn act to exert positive feedback on the midlatitude ocean through strengthening the surface westerlies to drive the currents that accompany the oceanic frontal zone. A midlatitude SST frontal zone can enhance local storm-track activity through moisture supply from the ocean on its warmer flank and through tight cross-frontal gradient of surface air temperature (SAT). The latter dry process is important from a viewpoint of

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