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Young-Kwon Lim, Siegfried D. Schubert, Oreste Reale, Myong-In Lee, Andrea M. Molod, and Max J. Suarez

profile of area-averaged (a) omega velocity (×10 −2 hPa s −1 ) and (b) moisture flux convergence (×10 −8 kg kg −1 s −1 ) for the hurricane season (June–November) of 2005. The geographical domain for area-averaging covers the typical TC genesis region over the Atlantic that spans 5°–20°N, 60°–15°W. Black, blue, and red curves denote results for ExpA, ExpB, and ExpC, respectively. Fig . 13. Difference in (a) relative vorticity (×10 −6 s −1 ) at 850 hPa, (b) wind variance (m 2 s −2 ) at 10-m level

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Enrico Scoccimarro, Silvio Gualdi, Gabriele Villarini, Gabriel A. Vecchi, Ming Zhao, Kevin Walsh, and Antonio Navarra

equatorward of these belts, leading to a more uniform distribution of TCPn with latitude in a warmer climate. 4. Discussion and conclusions It is well known that atmospheric moisture content tends to increase at a rate roughly governed by the Clausius–Clapeyron equation, while the energy available to drive convection (such as the ability of the troposphere to radiate away latent heat) increases more slowly (e.g., Knutson and Manabe 1995 ; Allen and Ingram 2002 ; Held and Soden 2006 ; Meehl et al. 2007

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Rongqing Han, Hui Wang, Zeng-Zhen Hu, Arun Kumar, Weijing Li, Lindsey N. Long, Jae-Kyung E. Schemm, Peitao Peng, Wanqiu Wang, Dong Si, Xiaolong Jia, Ming Zhao, Gabriel A. Vecchi, Timothy E. LaRow, Young-Kwon Lim, Siegfried D. Schubert, Suzana J. Camargo, Naomi Henderson, Jeffrey A. Jonas, and Kevin J. E. Walsh

),(d) EP El Niño; (b),(e) CP El Niño; and (c),(f) La Niña during 1982–2009 in (a)–(c) observations and (d)–(f) the MME mean. The light gray contours represent the 90% significance level. It is well known that there are other factors also affecting TC activity, such as SST ( Graham et al. 1987 ), midlevel moisture ( Gray 1979 ; Camargo et al. 2007a ), and tropical deep convection ( Kim et al. 2011 ). The tropical deep convection is known to be related to SST heating and sufficient midlevel moisture

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Gabriele Villarini, David A. Lavers, Enrico Scoccimarro, Ming Zhao, Michael F. Wehner, Gabriel A. Vecchi, Thomas R. Knutson, and Kevin A. Reed

aforementioned observational studies. Fig . 5. Median radial rainfall profiles for the (top),(middle) NH and (bottom) SH basins in the four GFDL simulations. The x axis corresponds to degrees from the TC center. The line “Present Day (CC)” refers to the rainfall profile for the Present Day simulation increased by 14%, corresponding to a moisture increase according to the Clausius–Clapeyron relationship for a 2-K increase in SST. The bin size is 1°. In the south Indian Ocean and southern Pacific basins, the

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Michael Wehner, Prabhat, Kevin A. Reed, Dáithí Stone, William D. Collins, and Julio Bacmeister

the 0.23° × 0.31° model are shown in Fig. 7 . This quantity was calculated by saving the maximum instantaneous precipitation rate for each identified storm followed by averaging across all storms within each Saffir–Simpson category. Both of the experiments with increased SST forcing exhibit statistically significant increases in maximum precipitation rates for all categories and range from 7% to 12% °C −1 of SST forcing. The Clausius–Clapeyron relation dictates that atmospheric moisture content

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Christina M. Patricola, R. Saravanan, and Ping Chang

SST forcings provide evidence that the vertical wind shear and air temperature and moisture anomalies correlated with the AMM in observations are indeed caused by the AMM ( Smirnov and Vimont 2011 ). The AMM is also positively correlated with the frequency of African easterly waves ( Belanger et al. 2014 ), which may further contribute to its influence on Atlantic TC activity through the number of TC “seeds” ( Avila 1991 ; Landsea 1993 ). These studies suggest that the conventional perspective of

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Malcolm J. Roberts, Pier Luigi Vidale, Matthew S. Mizielinski, Marie-Estelle Demory, Reinhard Schiemann, Jane Strachan, Kevin Hodges, Ray Bell, and Joanne Camp

attributable to the seasonal initialization of, for example, land surface properties such as soil moisture and the ocean, as well as full ocean coupling. Fig . 5. Monthly average frequency of modeled and reanalysis tropical cyclones and observed hurricanes for TC basins defined at the top of each panel. Model data use the ensemble mean for 1986–2010; and observations and reanalyses are for 1986–2010. Note that, for model and reanalysis data, the Northern Hemisphere basins represent only May–November and

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Hamish A. Ramsay, Savin S. Chand, and Suzana J. Camargo

.1007/s00382-007-0235-z Gozzo , L. F. , R. P. da Rocha , M. S. Reboita , and S. Sugahara , 2014 : Subtropical cyclones over the southwestern South Atlantic: Climatological aspects and case study . J. Climate , 27 , 8543 – 8562 , . 10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00149.1 Gozzo , L. F. , R. P. da Rocha , L. Gimeno , and A. Drumond , 2017 : Climatology and numerical case study of moisture sources associated with subtropical cyclogenesis over the

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