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Hyo-Seok Park, Sukyoung Lee, Seok-Woo Son, Steven B. Feldstein, and Yu Kosaka

anomalies ( Deser et al. 2000 ), but increased downward IR in Arctic winter was also proposed as a factor for changing sea ice thickness ( Francis and Hunter 2006 ). In particular, recent studies have found that poleward moisture fluxes into the Arctic associated with anomalous wintertime large-scale circulations increase downward IR at the surface ( Lee et al. 2011 ; Yoo et al. 2012a ; Woods et al. 2013 ). While one may wonder if an increase in downward IR can reduce sea ice thickness during the

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Bradford S. Barrett, Gina R. Henderson, and Joshua S. Werling

critically important to seasonal hydrological variability ( Hall et al. 2008 ; Koster et al. 2010 ; Zakharova et al. 2011 ; Mahanama et al. 2012 ) via impacts on soil moisture, streamflow, and feedbacks to air temperature. Second, spring snow impacts subsequent warm-season precipitation, both in terms of feedbacks over the northern Great Plains of North America, both positive ( Quiring and Kluver 2009 ) and negative ( Su et al. 2013 ), and through a negative feedback over monsoon areas ( Gutzler and

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Michael Goss, Steven B. Feldstein, and Sukyoung Lee

constructively or destructively interfere with the climatological stationary wave, with the resulting amplification or deamplification of the extratropical flow resulting in more or less heat and moisture (which can change the downward IR) transport into the Arctic, leading to changes in both the Arctic SAT and Arctic sea ice ( Henderson et al. 2014 ; Lee 2014 ; Park et al. 2015 ). Several recent studies ( Cohen et al. 2007 , 2014 ) have shown a link between snow cover anomalies over Eurasia and planetary

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Bradley P. Goodwin, Ellen Mosley-Thompson, Aaron B. Wilson, Stacy E. Porter, and M. Roxana Sierra-Hernandez

of temperature and moisture and influences the chemical composition of snowfall that is preserved as ice and used for paleoclimate reconstruction. This longer-term record extends observational records and provides an opportunity to better understand climate variability in the AP over the last century. However, the forces driving it vary spatially and temporally and lead to complex interactions. Furthermore, while reanalysis and model data have been used to draw seasonal links between tropical

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Robert A. Tomas, Clara Deser, and Lantao Sun

). Without the insulating effect of sea ice, the newly exposed warm surface waters will flux heat and water vapor into the overlying atmosphere, warming and moistening the lower troposphere (e.g., Screen and Simmonds 2010 ). Winds will mix the excess heat and moisture southward over the adjacent continents, increasing temperature and precipitation at high latitudes ( Deser et al. 2010 ). Northern land areas are also expected to experience a decrease in surface temperature variance ( Screen et al. 2015a

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Xiaojun Yuan, Michael R. Kaplan, and Mark A. Cane

tropical ocean basins, away from the cold NH ice sheet/sea ice forcing ( Fig. 11 ). The ITCZ prefers the warmer hemisphere, and as shown in Fig. 6 , the southward shift of Hadley circulation also moves moisture from the NH to SH subtropics ( Chiang and Bitz 2005 ; Broccoli et al. 2006 ; Chiang 2009 ; Chiang and Friedman 2012 ). During the LGM, tropical climate must have been generally more arid than present because of colder temperatures ( Seager et al. 2000 ); however, spatial variability of

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Ryan L. Fogt and Alex J. Wovrosh

location of the moisture flux from the Southern Ocean). Similarly, the spatial breadth of the ASL—how large the low pressure anomaly is in the Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas—is an important factor in determining how variations in the ASL will impact the Antarctic Peninsula climate during austral spring ( Clem and Fogt 2013 ). Several mechanisms give rise to long-term changes in the ASL. Both Turner et al. (2009) and Fogt and Zbacnik (2014) found that ozone depletion has led to a deepening of the

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