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Qing Liu, Rolf H. Reichle, Rajat Bindlish, Michael H. Cosh, Wade T. Crow, Richard de Jeu, Gabrielle J. M. De Lannoy, George J. Huffman, and Thomas J. Jackson

1. Introduction Soil moisture is an important component of the land surface water budget. Large-scale soil moisture data are useful in many research fields such as hydrology, agriculture, and ecology ( Robock et al. 1998 ; Koster et al. 2008 ; Entekhabi et al. 2010a ). Soil moisture is also a critical variable that needs to be carefully initialized for weather and climate prediction ( Beljaars et al. 1996 ; Drusch 2007 ; Mahfouf 2010 ). In situ measurements of soil moisture, however, are

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Dai Matsushima, Reiji Kimura, and Masato Shinoda

1. Introduction Thermal inertia is the square root of the product of the volumetric heat capacity and the thermal conductivity and represents the temporal stability of the temperature of materials. Thermal inertia has been used for estimating the soil moisture of the subsurface layer because the magnitude of the thermal inertia of water and that of other materials are sufficiently different from each other, and it can be theoretically shown that thermal inertia and soil water content have a

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Yadu Pokhrel, Naota Hanasaki, Sujan Koirala, Jaeil Cho, Pat J.-F. Yeh, Hyungjun Kim, Shinjiro Kanae, and Taikan Oki

; Lobell et al. 2009 ; Sacks et al. 2009 ; Puma and Cook 2010 ). In these studies, the volume of annual irrigation water was commonly fixed at a mean value based on earlier reports (e.g., Döll and Siebert 2002 ; Helkowski 2004 ), or soil moisture in irrigated areas was set to the saturation throughout the year, independent of crop cycle. Therefore, the temporal dynamics of irrigation water requirement was largely ignored. In reality, however, irrigation water requirement varies both spatially and

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Paul A. Dirmeyer

climate system, extending atmospheric predictability from 1–2 weeks to months or seasons. The terms soil moisture and soil wetness are often used interchangeably ( Dirmeyer 2004 ). In this review, we will be more precise. Soil moisture will refer to the water content of the soil expressed in terms of mass per unit area or a depth of liquid water contained in the soil column (because liquid water is essentially incompressible and has an essentially constant density). This may mean actual water, such as

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S. Nandargi and O. N. Dhar

1. Introduction Precipitation provides the basic input for hydrological studies. However, it varies greatly in space and time within a range of mountains and also from one mountain range to another. The hydrological processes cannot be properly estimated until distribution of precipitation is known. The mountainous environment in comparison to the plain areas has a strong impact on precipitation distribution. In the mountainous regions, orography provides necessary uplift to the moisture

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Pablo Imbach, Luis Molina, Bruno Locatelli, Olivier Roupsard, Gil Mahé, Ronald Neilson, Lenin Corrales, Marko Scholze, and Philippe Ciais

until it utilizes nearly all of the available soil moisture ( Horton 1933 ). The model assumptions are that potential equilibrium vegetation can be modeled based on climate and soil data and that the resulting water partitioning allows for runoff and evapotranspiration estimates at a regional scale ( Imbach et al. 2010 ). The assumption that LAI and vegetation forms adjust according to soil moisture allows the model to search for an equilibrium of LAI, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture depending

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Akihiko Ito and Motoko Inatomi

landscape and higher scales, the water and carbon cycles occur heterogeneously over the land surface, requiring an appropriate scaling-up methodology. Third, the carbon and water cycles encompass a variety of complicated processes, including wildfire regimes, which are affected by fuel moisture status; soil carbon loss as related to water erosion; and human activities such as deforestation and irrigation. The primary objective of this study was to simulate and analyze WUE of the global terrestrial

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Sante Laviola, Agata Moscatello, Mario Marcello Miglietta, Elsa Cattani, and Vincenzo Levizzani

microphysics, convection, turbulence, soil processes, boundary layer, and radiation. In the model configurations used here the following parameterizations were selected: 1) the Thompson et al. (2004) microphysics module, which includes six classes of moisture species plus ice-phase and mixed-phase processes resulting from the interaction of ice (graupel or hail) and water particles; 2) the Kain–Fritsch cumulus parameterization ( Kain 2004 , on the coarser grid; no parameterization is used on the inner

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