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Annalisa Cherchi, Silvio Gualdi, Swadhin Behera, Jing Jia Luo, Sebastien Masson, Toshio Yamagata, and Antonio Navarra

1. Introduction The Indian summer monsoon (ISM) is one of the main components of the large-scale Asian summer monsoon. It is regulated by the thermal contrast between land and ocean, the large availability of moisture from the Indian Ocean, the earth’s rotation, and the radiation from the sun ( Webster 1987 ; Meehl 1997 ). It is characterized by large precipitation over India from June to September ( Parthasarathy et al. 1992 ). Additionally, the abundant rainfall in the Bay of Bengal is an

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Tomoki Tozuka, Jing-Jia Luo, Sebastien Masson, and Toshio Yamagata

with a special emphasis on the Indian Ocean dipole. Deep-Sea Res. II , 49 , 1549 – 1572 . Rasch , P. J. , and D. L. Williamson , 1990 : Computational aspects of moisture transport in global models of the atmosphere. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 116 , 1071 – 1090 . Reason , C. J. C. , R. J. Allan , and J. A. Lindesay , 1996a : Dynamical response of the oceanic circulation and temperature to interdecadal variability in the surface winds over the Indian Ocean. J. Climate , 9

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Lisan Yu, Xiangze Jin, and Robert A. Weller

a frozen forecast–analysis platform that consists of a T62 model (equivalent to a horizontal resolution of about 210 km) with 28 vertical levels and 6-h intervals. NCEP1 produces an ongoing dataset from 1948 to the present, while NCEP2 corrects known errors in NCEP1 and generates data from 1979 onward. NCEP2 differs from NCEP1 mostly in the parameterization of shortwave radiation, cloud, and soil moisture ( Kanamitsu et al. 2000 ). It is regarded only as an update of NCEP1, not a next

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Karumuri Ashok, Hisashi Nakamura, and Toshio Yamagata

1. Introduction Synoptic-scale baroclinic eddies that propagate along midlatitude storm tracks form an important constituent of the climate system, as they act to maintain the extratropical general circulation by meridionally transporting zonal angular momentum, sensible heat, and moisture. In this process, they also affect the local weather conditions in the extratropics through precipitation and temperature variations. Trenberth (1991) comprehensively studied the seasonal characteristics of

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Hae-Kyung Lee Drbohlav, Silvio Gualdi, and Antonio Navarra

locally enhanced monsoon-type circulation. However, the IODM under these two types of wind anomalies may evolve into different spatial structures. Particularly, the most distinct difference can be found in the SST anomalies in the western Indian Ocean. Since the western Indian Ocean is an important moisture source for the Indian summer monsoon, the different SST anomalies in this region may have varying degrees of influence on the Indian monsoon. According to Loschnigg et al. (2003) , the warm SST

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