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Sarah Ringerud, Christa Peters-Lidard, Joe Munchak, and Yalei You

Congo rain forests. Given the relative uniformity of emissivity over the tropical rain forest, which tends to be less dynamic due to year-round vegetation and relative insensitivity to surface soil moisture changes under the heavy canopy, this presents further evidence that using a TPW value retrieved using the coincident observations versus ancillary data has the potential to improve the GPM PMW precipitation algorithm. The false alarms using the GPROF Class constraints are very similar to a Φ N

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Clément Guilloteau, Antonios Mamalakis, Lawrence Vulis, Phong V. V. Le, Tryphon T. Georgiou, and Efi Foufoula-Georgiou

analysis for spectroscopic determination of subsurface moisture and water-table height in Northern peatland ecosystems . IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. , 55 , 1526 – 1536 , https://doi.org/10.1109/TGRS.2016.2626460 . 10.1109/TGRS.2016.2626460 Bartlett , M. S. , 1950 : Periodogram analysis and continuous spectra . Biometrika , 37 , 1 – 16 , https://doi.org/10.2307/2332141 . 10.1093/biomet/37.1-2.1 Bloomfield , P. , and J. M. Davis , 1994 : Orthogonal rotation of complex principal

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Efi Foufoula-Georgiou, Clement Guilloteau, Phu Nguyen, Amir Aghakouchak, Kuo-Lin Hsu, Antonio Busalacchi, F. Joseph Turk, Christa Peters-Lidard, Taikan Oki, Qingyun Duan, Witold Krajewski, Remko Uijlenhoet, Ana Barros, Pierre Kirstetter, William Logan, Terri Hogue, Hoshin Gupta, and Vincenzo Levizzani

from satellites through soil moisture gravimetry (e.g., the GRACE satellite) ( Behrangi et al. 2018 ) and microwave scatterometers ( Brocca et al. 2014 ) are promising areas of research and development. In the context of the unprecedented wealth of observations with diverse information content, the use of data analytics and ML concepts to learn complex relationships from large precipitation datasets was discussed ( Sadeghi et al. 2019 ), along with the need for physically based dimensionality

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Stephen E. Lang and Wei-Kuo Tao

Syst. , 8 , 66 – 95 , https://doi.org/10.1002/2015MS000469 . 10.1002/2015MS000469 Chong , M. , and D. Hauser , 1990 : A tropical squall line observed during the COPT 81 experiment in West Africa. Part III: Heat and moisture budgets . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 118 , 1696 – 1706 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1990)118<1696:ATSLOD>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0493(1990)118<1696:ATSLOD>2.0.CO;2 Choudhury , A. D. , and R. Krishnan , 2011 : Dynamical response of the South Asian monsoon trough

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Allison E. Goodwell

. Climate conditions, topography, and regional land–atmosphere feedbacks drive these aspects of temporal persistence and spatial synchronicity of precipitation, which in turn influence soil moisture, flows, and vegetation. For example, the direction, speed, and size of a storm event moving across a basin can impact downstream flows and ecohydrologic processes. Goodwell and Kumar (2019) explored temporal precipitation persistence and predictability, addressing the extent to which the knowledge of past

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Samantha H. Hartke, Daniel B. Wright, Dalia B. Kirschbaum, Thomas A. Stanley, and Zhe Li

producing error estimates in the first place, another challenge is enabling environmental models to ingest such estimates. One approach is to generate ensembles consisting of multiple realizations of precipitation time series or space–time fields and then use each ensemble member to drive a prediction model. This approach allows prediction models to be used without any particular modification, as demonstrated in a number of studies using stochastic rainfall input for soil moisture and landslide hazard

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Chandra Rupa Rajulapati, Simon Michael Papalexiou, Martyn P. Clark, Saman Razavi, Guoqiang Tang, and John W. Pomeroy

, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017RG000574 . 10.1002/2017RG000574 Trenberth , K. E. , A. Dai , R. M. Rasmussen , and D. B. Parsons , 2003 : The changing character of precipitation . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 84 , 1205 – 1218 , https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-84-9-1205 . 10.1175/BAMS-84-9-1205 Trenberth , K. E. , J. T. Fasullo , and J. Mackaro , 2011 : Atmospheric moisture transports from ocean to land and global energy flows in reanalyses . J. Climate , 24 , 4907 – 4924 , https

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