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Mohammad Mirzaei, Ali R. Mohebalhojeh, Christoph Zülicke, and Riwal Plougonven

out by the WRF are presented in section 5 , with a detailed comparison of IGW activity with unbalanced fields in section 6 . The sensitivities to model horizontal resolution and moisture are also examined. Finally, concluding remarks are given in section 7 . 2. Balance relations To fix ideas, a balance relation can be thought of as a diagnostic relation between the velocity and mass fields [see McIntyre (2015) for basic concepts and ideas]. The well-known geostrophic balance is the leading

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Mahnoosh Haghighatnasab, Mohammad Mirzaei, Ali R. Mohebalhojeh, Christoph Zülicke, and Riwal Plougonven

nonphysical structures at the smallest scales of the flow. The model was also run with a horizontal resolution of 100 km and a vertical resolution of 1000 m. The latter low-resolution run is referred to as LOW. To initialize the model, an ideal profile of relative humidity [see Tan et al. (2004) and MMZP for details] is added to the jet. For the amplitude of the initial moisture, in (5.1) of MMZP , RH 0 is set to 0.85. The same setup for humidity, as well as the cumulus and microphysics

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Benedikt Ehard, Peggy Achtert, Andreas Dörnbrack, Sonja Gisinger, Jörg Gumbel, Mikhail Khaplanov, Markus Rapp, and Johannes Wagner

nonorographic gravity waves over the Southern Ocean emphasize the role of moisture . J. Geophys. Res. , 120 , 1278 – 1299 , doi: 10.1002/2014JD022332 . Preusse , P. , and Coauthors , 2009 : New perspectives on gravity wave remote sensing by spaceborne infrared limb imaging . Atmos. Meas. Tech. , 2 , 299 – 311 , doi: 10.5194/amt-2-299-2009 . Rapp , M. , B. Strelnikov , A. Müllemann , F.-J. Lübken , and D. Fritts , 2004 : Turbulence measurements and implications for gravity wave

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Tanja C. Portele, Andreas Dörnbrack, Johannes S. Wagner, Sonja Gisinger, Benedikt Ehard, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, and Markus Rapp

June and are kept constant throughout each simulation, covering 48 h. In the 2D WRF Model, open boundary conditions are used in flow direction. Note that horizontal winds are projected to a wind direction of 300° ( ), which is the direction of the Mt-A-2b transect ( Fig. 1 ). All idealized simulations are run without moisture and radiation effects. From both the WRF and the in situ flight-level data, vertical energy and momentum fluxes are calculated according to the method of Smith et al. (2008

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