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Ángel F. Adames and Yi Ming

the best of our knowledge, the first study to examine the water vapor budget of SMDs was Yoon and Chen (2005) . They found that the leading balance in SMDs involves import of moisture through convergence and loss of moisture through condensation and precipitation. Their study, however, only considered the Eulerian temporal tendency in moisture over a limited domain near the center of the vortex. Thus, their study does not take into account the propagation of the moisture anomalies. However

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Alexis Berg and Justin Sheffield

1. Introduction Surface climate over land is influenced by the physical interactions taking place between the land surface and the overlying atmosphere. The land radiative and physical properties, such as albedo and water availability, are impacted by atmospheric conditions; in turn, land surface variations affect the radiative, moisture, heat, and momentum fluxes between the surface and the atmosphere, impacting the overlying atmosphere and eventually regulating local climate. These

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Xianan Jiang, Ángel F. Adames, Ming Zhao, Duane Waliser, and Eric Maloney

proposed to explain the distinct seasonality in MJO propagation (e.g., Waliser 2006 ; Wang 2012 ). One traditional view of the eastward propagation of the winter MJO maintains through triggering of new convection to the east by frictional moisture convergence in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) associated with the equatorial Kelvin wave response to the MJO convective heating (e.g., Salby et al. 1994 ; Wang and Li 1994 ; Maloney and Hartmann 1998 ). Meanwhile, past work has suggested that

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Samson M. Hagos, L. Ruby Leung, Oluwayemi A. Garuba, Charlotte Demott, Bryce Harrop, Jian Lu, and Min-Seop Ahn

1. Introduction Understanding and quantifying the effects of global warming on regional hydrological cycles is one of the most important problems in climate science because of the societal implications. At global scale, atmospheric moisture increases with temperature under global warming at a rate that follows the Clausius–Clapeyron relationship of ~7% K −1 , while global precipitation increases at a much slower rate of ~2% K −1 ( Held and Soden 2006 ). This difference between the responses of

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Zhe Feng, Fengfei Song, Koichi Sakaguchi, and L. Ruby Leung

, baroclinic waves and frontal systems provide strong lifting mechanisms and the Great Plains low-level jet (LLJ) provides anomalous moisture for favorable dynamical and thermodynamical environments for MCS development. In contrast, during summer, favorable environments featuring significantly weaker baroclinic lifting and thermodynamic instability suggest much lower predictability of MCSs compared to spring ( Song et al. 2019 ). Besides limitations in physics parameterizations, it is unclear if GCMs are

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Fiaz Ahmed and J. David Neelin

environmental factors. Moreover, the chaotic nature of convection renders its relationship to the environment nonunique. The use of statistics such as conditional means of convection-related quantities rather than individual convective events, however, can help elucidate the typical relationship to the environment. The statistics can in many ways be extremely revealing, as exemplified by the striking relationship between convection—represented by precipitation—and environmental moisture: rapid nonlinear

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Daehyun Kim, Yumin Moon, Suzana J. Camargo, Allison A. Wing, Adam H. Sobel, Hiroyuki Murakami, Gabriel A. Vecchi, Ming Zhao, and Eric Page

environments themselves (e.g., Camargo et al. 2007 ). In other words, the relationship between TC characteristics and their large-scale environment is model dependent. To understand differences in TC characteristics between different models, it seems wisest to focus on differences in the interaction between their modeled TCs and large-scale environment. If two models, for example, employ two different convection schemes that exhibit vastly different sensitivities to environmental moisture, the two models

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James F. Booth, Catherine M. Naud, and Jeff Willison

cyclone precipitation and can affect the dynamical strength of the cyclone (e.g., Emanuel et al. 1987 ; Stoelinga 1996 ), and this change in dynamics can feedback on the precipitation amount. Recent work suggests that parameterized convection in models can impact the moisture content within a cyclone’s warm conveyor belt (WCB; e.g., Carlson 1998 , p. 305) by transporting the moisture upward and out of the WCB at the WCB entrance region ( Boutle et al. 2011 ; Booth et al. 2013 ). Following this

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Allison A. Wing, Suzana J. Camargo, Adam H. Sobel, Daehyun Kim, Yumin Moon, Hiroyuki Murakami, Kevin A. Reed, Gabriel A. Vecchi, Michael F. Wehner, Colin Zarzycki, and Ming Zhao

azimuthal averages of dynamic and thermodynamic fields around the storm center and identify physical processes related to the interaction between convection, moisture, and circulation that can lead to intermodel differences in simulated TCs. Of the three models examined, they found that the one with the most intense storms had the most precipitation near the composite TC center, the strongest sensitivity of convection to moisture, and the strongest contrast in relative humidity and surface latent heat

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Eric D. Maloney, Andrew Gettelman, Yi Ming, J. David Neelin, Daniel Barrie, Annarita Mariotti, C.-C. Chen, Danielle R. B. Coleman, Yi-Hung Kuo, Bohar Singh, H. Annamalai, Alexis Berg, James F. Booth, Suzana J. Camargo, Aiguo Dai, Alex Gonzalez, Jan Hafner, Xianan Jiang, Xianwen Jing, Daehyun Kim, Arun Kumar, Yumin Moon, Catherine M. Naud, Adam H. Sobel, Kentaroh Suzuki, Fuchang Wang, Junhong Wang, Allison A. Wing, Xiaobiao Xu, and Ming Zhao

sensitivity of atmospheric convection to free-tropospheric humidity demonstrate a strong coupling between convection and moisture on daily time scales, which are also able to discern models with strong and weak intraseasonal variability (e.g., Kim et al. 2014a ). Evaluating new model configurations against observations can determine whether a particular process is well represented, ensure that models produce the right answers for the right reasons, and identify gaps in the understanding of phenomena

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