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John E. Janowiak, Peter Bauer, Wanqiu Wang, Phillip A. Arkin, and Jon Gottschalck

modified by the improved convection scheme that interacts better with the environmental moisture fields, employs a more realistic convective adjustment time and vertical mass flux ( Bechtold et al. 2008 ). More details of the ECMWF model physics parameterization developments and their impact on the model climate are given by Jung et al. (2010) , who also cite the strong increase of rainfall variability introduced by the 2007 convection scheme updates. (Details of model and data assimilation

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Ronald Gelaro, Rolf H. Langland, Simon Pellerin, and Ricardo Todling

events. The results presented here should be viewed as only a first step in the ongoing work within THORPEX to quantify and compare observation impacts in current forecast systems. It is anticipated that future experiments will include more recent observation types, especially from hyperspectral satellite sounding instruments, forecast metrics that account explicitly for the effects of moisture and the impact of moisture observations, and results from other forecast systems

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Sharanya J. Majumdar, Kathryn J. Sellwood, Daniel Hodyss, Zoltan Toth, and Yucheng Song

vertical average is computed over three pressure levels: 850, 500, and 200 hPa, and T r is a reference temperature (287 K). We elect to use the DTE norm for consistency with previous papers on predictability and targeted observations ( Palmer et al. 1998 ; Buizza and Montani 1999 ; Majumdar et al. 2002 ; Zhang et al. 2003 ; Petersen et al. 2007 ). Other perturbation variables such as moisture were found to produce a secondary contribution to the signal variance. c. Eddy kinetic energy diagnostics

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Munehiko Yamaguchi and Sharanya J. Majumdar

at 700 hPa. Considering that the temperature anomaly due to the warm core structure in the nonperturbed field (not shown) is about 4.0 K at 250 hPa, the temperature perturbation enhances the warm core by about 50% with respect to the nonperturbed member. The specific humidity perturbation increases the moisture by 16% at 700 hPa with respect to the nonperturbed field. JMA also perturbs all components: wind, temperature, and specific humidity. JMA’s perturbations are characterized by the

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Warren J. Tennant, Glenn J. Shutts, Alberto Arribas, and Simon A. Thompson

moisture. While work is ongoing at various centers to experiment with such methods, we believe that because geostrophic adjustment proceeds on time scales of less than one day, the wind increments soon grow accompanying temperature increments. Furthermore, the divergence forcing would generate temperature perturbations directly. As model resolution continues to increase, and more of the atmospheric physical processes are adequately simulated, the utility of a backscatter scheme may change. However

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