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T. N. Krishnamurti, Arindam Chakraborty, and A. K. Mishra

, S. , Y. Takayabu , and W. Tao , 2008 : Spectral retrieval of latent heating profiles from TRMM PR data. Part III: Estimating apparent moisture sink profiles over tropical oceans. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. , 47 , 620 – 640 . Slingo , J. M. , and Coauthors , 1996 : Intraseasonal oscillations in 15 atmospheric general circulation models: Results from an AMIP diagnostic subproject. Climate Dyn. , 12 , 325 – 357 . Stefanova , L. , and T. N. Krishnamurti , 2002

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Richard H. Johnson, Paul E. Ciesielski, Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, and Andrew J. Newman

zones along the SMO. The NAME sounding network represents the first intensive sounding array that has been established in a coastal, mountainous region to study monsoon convection. It has sufficient temporal and spatial resolution during intensive observing periods to investigate the diurnal evolution of the flow and the vertical distribution of heat sources and moisture sinks over both land and ocean, which are the objectives of this study. Determination of the vertical profile of heating in the

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Yasu-Masa Kodama, Masaki Katsumata, Shuichi Mori, Sinsuke Satoh, Yuki Hirose, and Hiroaki Ueda

from low-level clouds is especially difficult to evaluate because upper clouds disturb the observation of low-level clouds from space. Observation by satellite-borne precipitation radar (PR) began with the launch of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite in late 1997. The PR instrument on TRMM (TRMM PR) can observe the vertical structure of precipitation, including precipitation from low-level clouds. Heat and moisture budget analyses have been conducted to evaluate the

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Shaocheng Xie, Timothy Hume, Christian Jakob, Stephen A. Klein, Renata B. McCoy, and Minghua Zhang

the temperature and moisture structure of the environment ( Riehl and Malkus 1958 ; Yanai 1961 ; Yanai and Johnson 1993 ). Documenting the large-scale structure and latent heating profiles of tropical convective cloud systems from observations is a key step toward understanding how cumulus convection interacts with its large-scale environment. This has been one of the primary goals of a number of major field experiments conducted in the tropics ( Thompson et al. 1979 ; Frank 1978 ; Frank and

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K-M. Lau and H-T. Wu

, discharge–recharge, radiative heating feedback, moisture-convergence and air–sea interaction, as well as combinations of these mechanisms, may also play important roles ( Hayashi and Golder 1993 ; Wang and Li 1994 ; Emanuel et al. 1994 ; Hu and Randall 1994 ; Waliser et al. 1999 ; Marshall et al. 2008 ). Contemporary observational studies have shown the abundance of low- and midlevel cloud (cumulus congestus) in the tropical atmosphere ( Johnson et al. 1999 ). Recent satellite studies have shown

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Shoichi Shige, Yukari N. Takayabu, Satoshi Kida, Wei-Kuo Tao, Xiping Zeng, Chie Yokoyama, and Tristan L’Ecuyer

precipitation rate at the melting level P m instead of the PTH. The SLH estimates from PR data were in good agreement with rawinsonde estimates averaged over the Northern Enhanced Sounding Array (NESA) of the 1998 South China Sea Monsoon Experiment (SCSMEX; Lau et al. 2000 ). Recently, the work by Shige et al. (2008 ; hereafter, Part III ) used the SLH algorithm to estimate the vertical distribution of the apparent moisture sink. Although discrepancies between the SLH-retrieved and sounding

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Yukari N. Takayabu, Shoichi Shige, Wei-Kuo Tao, and Nagio Hirota

ITCZ. Wu (2003) investigated the circulation driven by deep heating and shallow congestus heating by linear equations and a dry primitive equation model, and he showed that low-level moisture convergence driven by shallow congestus heating is 5 times larger than the deep heating of the same amount and exceeds the value to maintain the heat source. On the other hand, moisture convergence associated with deep heating is not efficient enough to sustain the heating. He estimated about 24% of the

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Wei-Kuo Tao, Stephen Lang, Xiping Zeng, Shoichi Shige, and Yukari Takayabu

for each of the GCE simulated cases. The oceanic cases have more rainfall than the continental. This is due primarily to the fact that the oceanic environments have higher precipitable water contents (i.e., more moisture) than the continental (see Table 1 in Tao et al. 2004 ). The vertically integrated water vapor content for the SCSMEX case is very moist (over 62 g cm −2 ) compared to the TOGA COARE and GATE cases. That is why the SCSMEX simulation has the largest amount of rainfall. However

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Samson Hagos, Chidong Zhang, Wei-Kuo Tao, Steve Lang, Yukari N. Takayabu, Shoichi Shige, Masaki Katsumata, Bill Olson, and Tristan L’Ecuyer

heat fluxes from the surface to the atmosphere are influenced by the ambient surface winds as well as temperature and moisture distributions. Hence, the three-dimensional structure of the diabatic heating is closely related to the atmospheric circulation because it not only drives the circulation, but also receives feedback from it. This is particularly true for the diabatic heating associated with tropical precipitation, which on the one hand is a result of instability due to the accumulation of

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Mircea Grecu, William S. Olson, Chung-Lin Shie, Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, and Wei-Kuo Tao

assigning consistent cloud-resolving-model-generated heating profiles to each category of precipitation profile. Shige et al. (2007) improved on their method by subdividing the atmosphere (at the freezing level) in convective regions into two layers and applying a precipitation flux scaling of cloud-model-generated profiles in each layer. In an alternative approach, Satoh and Noda (2001) applied a steady-state moisture budget to the atmospheric column and adjusted parameterized profiles of vertical

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