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  • Understanding Diurnal Variability of Precipitation through Observations and Models (UDVPOM) x
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R. E. Carbone and J. D. Tuttle

forcing along the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coasts, respectively. Relatively low-amplitude semidiurnal forcings appear to be associated with the reversal of the MPS, which becomes stronger where in concert with moisture convergence provided by the GPLLJ. Finally, we speculate that a weak circulation of the thermally direct type may exist between the southwest Great Lakes area and the central Appalachian Mountains, possibly contributing to a nocturnal maximum over Illinois and Indiana. 5. Interannual

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Alex C. Ruane and John O. Roads

of reanalysis models, finding that parameterization errors propagate throughout the system. In particular, the convective parameterizations employed by global reanalyses were found to have a quick trigger that initiated weak convection in the afternoons over land despite the proper supply of moisture for the more diverse observed precipitation maxima. Ruane and Roads (2007b , hereafter RR07b ) analyzed the variance distribution of five global precipitation sets at high temporal and spatial

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T. N. Krishnamurti, C. Gnanaseelan, A. K. Mishra, and A. Chakraborty

from the vertical integrals of the apparent moisture sink relation of Yanai (1963) where the computation of the PBL fluxes were obtained from the reanalysis datasets and using the observed rainfall estimates from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Basically the results of this study again confirmed the same hierarchy of results; that is, the predicted flux of latent heat improved as we moved sequentially from the member models, the ensemble mean, and the unified model and to the

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J. Li, S. Sorooshian, W. Higgins, X. Gao, B. Imam, and K. Hsu

-retrieved precipitation. In the absence of high-resolution in situ data, we can use high-resolution numerical models to examine unresolved features of the diurnal variability. Coarse-resolution global models cannot resolve either the Gulf of California (GOC; e.g., Berbery 2001 ; Mo et al. 2005 ), which is a primary channel for moisture into southwestern North America (e.g., Stensrud et al. 1995 ), or the complex terrain of the region. On the other hand, high-resolution mesoscale models have been used to

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Song Yang and Eric A. Smith

stimulating condensation and precipitation. This mechanism, referred to as SRCM (the M referring to moisture) and also addressed in the modeling studies of Tao et al. (1993 , 1996 ), is in contrast with the Randall et al. (1991) SRC explanation that the key diurnal control is simply the nighttime thermodynamic destabilization of lapse rates. Yang and Smith’s (2006) recent review and TRMM data analysis concerning mechanisms of diurnal rainfall variability found that the earlier published mechanisms

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Tianjun Zhou, Rucong Yu, Haoming Chen, Aiguo Dai, and Yang Pan

. 2007 ), these precipitation characteristics significantly modulate soil moisture, runoff, evaporation, and sensible heat flux over land ( Qian et al. 2006 ). They also provide an excellent test bed for validating cumulus and other parameterizations in numerical weather and climate models, which still have large deficiencies in simulating the diurnal timing, frequency, and intensity of precipitation (e.g., Dai et al. 1999 ; Lin et al. 2000 ; Yang and Slingo 2001 ; Betts and Jakob 2002 ; Dai and

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R. Cifelli, S. W. Nesbitt, S. A. Rutledge, W. A. Petersen, and S. Yuter

1. Introduction It is well known that tropical convection has a significant impact on global climate. In particular, studies have shown that precipitation and latent heating in tropical convection affect the large-scale circulation through heat and moisture transports ( Riehl and Malkus 1958 ; Hartmann et al. 1984 ; DeMaria 1985 ). Although tropical convection and precipitation processes vary over a broad range of time scales, the fundamental mode of variability is driven by the daily change

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