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Bethany L. Scott, Tyson E. Ochsner, Bradley G. Illston, Christopher A. Fiebrich, Jeffery B. Basara, and Albert J. Sutherland

locations (gray dots) with validation sites indicated (black dots). Soil matric potential measurements from the Oklahoma Mesonet heat dissipation sensors are often converted to estimates of soil moisture (i.e., volumetric water content; e.g., Collow et al. 2012 ). That conversion is based on the site- and depth-specific soil water retention curve. The van Genuchten (1980) equation is used to represent the unique water retention curve for each site and depth: The parameters include θ r (cm 3 cm −3

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Robert J. Zamora, F. Martin Ralph, Edward Clark, and Timothy Schneider

the amount of water available for aquifer recharge. Thus, soil moisture observations are being utilized by water resource managers in their long- and short-term management of water storage facilities (i.e., dams and reservoirs). Our ability to make accurate long-term observations of soil moisture on regional scales can also have a large impact on our ability to understand the impact of global climate change on our water supply. Providing timely weather, hydrological, and climatological forecasts

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Shu-Peng Ho, Ying-Hwa Kuo, and Sergey Sokolovskiy

(from 0 to 18 km) to ∼1 km at 20 km, which is much higher than that of most other satellite data ( Kursinski et al. 1997 ). In addition to GPS RO soundings, high-vertical-resolution temperature and moisture profiles can be obtained from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) measurements. With a very high spectral resolution ( λ /Δ λ ≈ 1200), AIRS can measure vertical temperature and moisture profiles with about 1–2-km vertical resolution ( Aumann et al. 2003 ). The temperature root-mean-square error

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Weinan Pan, R. P. Boyles, J. G. White, and J. L. Heitman

1. Introduction Soil moisture is an important forcing variable in terrestrial environments ( Vereecken et al. 2008 ; Robinson et al. 2008 ; Seneviratne et al. 2010 ; Legates et al. 2011 ). Soil moisture significantly influences weather and climate, plant growth and productivity, hydrology, and soil ecology (i.e., carbon/nitrogen dynamics, and trace gas emissions). As such, the need for compilation of extensive and intensive soil moisture information has been recognized for several decades (e

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Masami Sakamoto and John R. Christy

-layer temperature products. Then JRA-25 and ERA-40 will be compared with the observational temperature products. From these results, we will discuss the issues related to the TOVS assimilation. The purpose of this paper is to report problems in the TOVS assimilation in the reanalyses and how these impact the upper-air temperature and moisture tendencies. These results will contribute to better application practices of TOVS in future reanalyses. 2. The reanalyses and the deep-layer temperature products In this

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Jason Fritz and V. Chandrasekar

1. Introduction Having an accurate measure of the near-surface moisture field provides beneficial data to numerous applications such as boundary layer research, convection initiation, and quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPF). To estimate this moisture field with conventional Doppler weather radars, a technique developed in Fabry et al. (1997) and Fabry (2004) has been implemented and validated in the field ( Weckwerth et al. 2005 ). This method estimates the index of refraction of air

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Shinju Park and Frédéric Fabry

1. Introduction The radar refractivity retrieval developed by Fabry et al. (1997) is one way of estimating near-surface moisture using the phase measurement of the radar signal returned from ground targets such as power lines, buildings, or mountains. Because it can provide maps of near-surface moisture with high resolution in time (5 min) and space (4 km), this technique triggered high expectations in the field of quantitative forecasting of severe convective storm initiation and development

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Garry L. Schaefer, Michael H. Cosh, and Thomas J. Jackson

1. Introduction Soil moisture, soil temperature, and associated atmospheric measurements are critical parameters for many applications, including continental-scale climate models, soil classification, and drought and flood assessments. The Soil Moisture/Soil Temperature (SM/ST) Pilot Project was proposed in 1990 to test the feasibility of establishing a national soil–climate monitoring program that meets the growing demands of the global climate change community, modelers, resource managers

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Justin M. Sieglaff, Timothy J. Schmit, W. Paul Menzel, and Steven A. Ackerman

-sky regions. Ferraro et al. (2005) show the importance of microwave sounders to weather forecasting and analysis such as low-level moisture plume transport and the relation to precipitation. The information obtained from microwave instruments (when available) within cloudy-sky regions could be combined with information over clear-sky regions from infrared sensors to capture the full picture of the atmospheric state. Despite the many benefits of LEO instruments, one limitation of LEO instruments is that

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Bradley G. Illston, Jeffrey B. Basara, Christopher A. Fiebrich, Kenneth C. Crawford, Eric Hunt, Daniel K. Fisher, Ronald Elliott, and Karen Humes

1. Introduction Soil moisture is an important component in many hydrologic and land–atmosphere interactions. Anomalous soil moisture conditions on a large scale can lead to droughts or floods ( Delworth and Manabe 1989 , 1993 ), while regional variations can impact the development of the planetary boundary layer ( Zdunkowski et al. 1975 ; Betts and Ball 1995 ), the formation of low-level boundaries or land breezes ( Enger and Tjernstrom 1991 ; Segal and Arritt 1992 ), convective initiation

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