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  • Drought: Advances in Monitoring, Preparedness, and Understanding Drought Characteristics x
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Charles W. Lafon and Steven M. Quiring

spatial variations in disturbance regimes may influence geographic patterns of vegetation ( Parker et al. 2001 ; Bond and Keeley 2005 ). Here, we investigate how climate, specifically moisture, influences geographic patterns of wildfire in the eastern United States. Fire is an influential disturbance agent and major natural hazard that presents complex management challenges. Many factors, such as vegetation and land use, affect fire occurrence ( Pyne 1982 ; Alaback et al. 2003 ), but climate is of

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Sergio M. Vicente-Serrano, Santiago Beguería, Jorge Lorenzo-Lacruz, Jesús Julio Camarero, Juan I. López-Moreno, Cesar Azorin-Molina, Jesús Revuelto, Enrique Morán-Tejeda, and Arturo Sanchez-Lorenzo

drought indices to identify hydrological droughts in river discharges and reservoir storages in central Spain, and Zhai et al. ( Zhai et al. 2010 ) compared the relationship between the standardized precipitation index (SPI) and the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) and streamflow data in 10 regions of China. Sims et al. ( Sims et al. 2002 ) compared the PDSI and the SPI to assess soil moisture variations in North Carolina. In relation to vegetation activity and crop productivity, Potop ( Potop

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Kingtse C. Mo, Lindsey N. Long, and Jae-Kyung E. Schemm

one season before the onset of drought over the southern Great Plains and the Gulf States. The North Pacific SSTAs are also known to impact rainfall over the western United States ( Goodrich 2007 ). Barlow et al. ( Barlow et al. 2001 ) identified ENSO, the North Pacific SST mode, and the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) as major SSTA modes that modulate summer drought. Soil moisture (SM) does not usually trigger drought, but agricultural drought is often associated with SM persistence. Does a

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Ashok K. Mishra and Vijay P. Singh

) derived from a moisture balance model, using historical records of precipitation, temperature, and the local available water capacity of the soil. However, the Palmer hydrological drought index (PHDI) uses a modification of the PDSI to assess long-term moisture anomalies that affect streamflow, groundwater, and water storage. The primary difference between PDSI and PHDI is based on the ratio of moisture received to moisture required to definitely terminate a drought. The PDSI abruptly comes back to

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Richard R. Heim Jr. and Michael J. Brewer

1. Introduction Drought has had a significant impact on civilization throughout history, but it is one of the most difficult phenomena to measure and even to define. Numerous drought indices and indicators have been developed in the last two centuries, based on the sector and location affected, the particular application, and the availability of data, among other factors. Drought can take multiple forms, including meteorological drought (lack of precipitation), agricultural (or soil moisture

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Di Long, Bridget R. Scanlon, D. Nelun Fernando, Lei Meng, and Steven M. Quiring

; p < 0.05) ( Figure 1b ). In general, atmospheric moisture from the Gulf of Mexico results in precipitation concentrated mostly in months from April to September. A grassland biome dominates this region. Figure 1. (a) Location of the U.S. High Plains, meteorological stations, and mean annual precipitation over the High Plains and adjacent areas and (b) trends in annual precipitation (mm decade −1 ) across 207 stations within the High Plains. The HP is one of the most productive agricultural

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Daniel J. McEvoy, Justin L. Huntington, John T. Abatzoglou, and Laura M. Edwards

moisture ( Palmer 1965 ; Redmond 2002 ; Wilhite and Buchanan-Smith 2005 ). Developing and validating drought indices that adequately account for different characteristics of drought has been a major area of research for many meteorologists and hydrologists ( Oladipo 1985 ; Keyantash and Dracup 2002 ). While much research in the past has been devoted to identifying drought in agricultural and densely populated regions ( Meyer et al. 1991 ; Wu et al. 2004 ; Mavromatis 2007 ), this study examines

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