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Aubrey R. Jones and Nathaniel A. Brunsell

on land–atmosphere interactions is the idea that moisture and energy gradients across a landscape are associated with regional weather patterns over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Although soil moisture and vegetation impact the atmosphere through feedbacks with the land surface, the dominant processes driving these feedbacks have not been precisely determined and some disagreement still exists on what the primary mechanisms are. Previous research has shown evidence for the

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Lei Meng and Yanjun Shen

1. Introduction Interactions between soil moisture (SM) and climate have received much attention because of their potential for improving long-term and large-scale climate prediction. SM is an important component in the climate system and its variation can affect water and energy exchange between the surface and the boundary layer of the atmosphere ( Seneviratne et al. 2010 ). Previous research has shown that SM anomalies can have substantial impacts on precipitation in the transitional region

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Paolina Bongioannini Cerlini, Lorenzo Silvestri, Silvia Meniconi, and Bruno Brunone

, potential evaporation, and crop-yield information. Omorinbola (1986) evaluated the groundwater accretion by means of empirical equations as correlated to the magnitude of the saturated zone thickness, since such a parameter fluctuates with the rate of groundwater recharge. Soil moisture balance models as well as a regional runoff/storm duration relationship for assessing the effective precipitation have been used in Leach (1982) . In Chinnasamy et al. (2013) , the prediction of the groundwater

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Xiaolei Fu, Lifeng Luo, Ming Pan, Zhongbo Yu, Ying Tang, and Yongjian Ding

1. Introduction Soil moisture is not only an important variable for meteorology, hydrology, and agriculture applications ( Heathman et al. 2003 ), but it is also the key factor in land–atmosphere interactions ( Yu et al. 2014 ), primarily due to its control of water and energy fluxes in land surface ( Daly and Porporato 2005 ; Qin et al. 2009 ; Al-Hamdan and Cruise 2010 ; Li et al. 2010 ). It affects not only the partitioning of energy between sensible and latent heat in the atmosphere

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Jinyang Du and Qiang Liu

it is still under investigation on how to improve the TGD's ability to mitigate the damages of extreme weather events, such as severe droughts and floods. As a prerequisite to answer these questions, the characteristics of the spatial and temporal distribution patterns of land surface parameters at regional scales instead of local scales need to be evaluated. In this study, we focused on the land surface soil moisture, which is one of the most important parameters for the studies of global and

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Patricia M. Lawston, Joseph A. Santanello Jr., Brian Hanson, and Kristi Arsensault

1. Introduction Irrigation has the potential to modify local weather and regional climate through a repartitioning of water among the surface, soil, and atmosphere with the potential to drastically change the terrestrial energy budget in agricultural areas ( Qian et al. 2013 ). Vegetation cover and soil moisture primarily control water and energy fluxes from the surface into the planetary boundary layer (PBL), providing a pathway for irrigation to affect PBL growth and entrainment, and

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Bruce T. Anderson, Catherine Reifen, and Ralf Toumi

it to projected changes in soil moisture across the United States arising from increased anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions/concentrations. It is important to note that these results should be considered plausible projections of climate change in these regions, not necessarily forecasts of such change. At the same time, we highlight these projections because they contain highly nonlinear long-term evolutions that have important consequences for local and regional adaptation and planning

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Gian Villamil-Otero, Ryan Meiszberg, Jennifer S. Haase, Ki-Hong Min, Mark R. Jury, and John J. Braun

wide when the trade winds split around the mountains and narrow when flow goes over the mountains. Boundary layer moisture is also diurnally modulated by evapotranspiration from the dense vegetation ( Jury et al. 2009 ). The goal of this research is to understand moisture variability in western Puerto Rico contributed by a sea breeze caught between twin gyres. We investigate this through model simulations and field data collection and analysis. The field data were collected as part of an

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David M. Mocko and Y. C. Sud

circulation models (GCMs) and/or regional models. SSiB has been calibrated for a number of biomes using observational data taken from several regions of the world. In these calibrations and/or evaluations, atmospheric data serve as external forcing, while the model simulates soil/vegetation temperature(s), soil moisture(s), and surface fluxes that are compared with observations. Thus far, validation datasets include the Russian soil moisture data ( Robock et al., 1995 ; Schlosser et al., 1997 ; Xue et

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David M. Mocko and Y. C. Sud

the bucket and the state-of-the-art biosphere models and, based on the complexity of the relation, concluded that it cannot be inferred that the bucket was inadequate as compared to the biosphere models. The bucket has also undergone improvements to generate subsaturated baseflow and is referred to as “smart bucket” or “bucket with holes.” Regardless of the above, the Climate and Radiation Branch at Goddard has its own history of developing simple models to arrive at soil moisture initialization

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