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Christopher Potter, Pusheng Zhang, Steven Klooster, Vanessa Genovese, Shashi Shekhar, and Vipin Kumar

displacement of winter storms and moisture transport across the North Atlantic into southern Europe ( Hurrell, 1995 ). A positive NAO corresponds to a northward displacement of storms and moisture in northernmost Europe and Russia. During winters when the NAO index is high, anomalously low precipitation commonly occurs over the Canadian Arctic, central and southern Europe, the Mediterranean, and the Middle East. In contrast, anomalously high precipitation occurs from Iceland through Scandinavia. In the

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Martin-Pierre Lavigne, Alain N. Rousseau, Richard Turcotte, Anne-Marie Laroche, Jean-Pierre Fortin, and Jean-Pierre Villeneuve

al., 2003 ; Fortin et al., 1995 ; Fortin et al., 2001a ; Fortin et al., 2001b ). HYDROTEL, a semidistributed physically based model, integrates six computational modules that are run in a cascade (i.e., in a decoupled manner): weather data interpolation, snow cover dynamic, potential evapotranspiration, soil moisture balance, surface runoff, and streamflow. Each module offers more than one computational algorithm based on the availability of data for the studied watershed. Some algorithms

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In-Young Yeo, Steven I. Gordon, and Jean-Michel Guldmann

. Under the linearity assumption, the runoff process at the cell level is described by a first-order linear differential equation ( Chow et al., 1989 ), where S i denotes moisture storage, I i the input, Q i the runoff, λ i the loss coefficient, and i the i th flow cell. Equation (3) applies the principle of conservation of matter and states that the change in the water content of cell i ( dS i /dt ) is equal to the balance between inflows ( I i ) and outflows ( Q i and λ i S i

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Jeffrey A. Hicke, David B. Lobell, and Gregory P. Asner

production for each county using the following equation: where P is production (in units of g C yr −1 ) and the subscript i indicates different crop types. Here PC i is the reported production of crop i in the reported units (e.g., bushels), MRY i is the mass per reported yield, and MC i is the harvest moisture content (mass water/mass harvest, g/g). Here C (= 0.45 g C g −1 ) converts mass to carbon. The harvest index HI i specifies the ratio of yield mass to aboveground biomass, and f AG

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Gemma T. Narisma and Andrew J. Pitman

.4. Soil and LAI initialization Soil moisture and temperature were initialized using the modeled results from the CSIRO model. We also initialize LAI in those experiments where we allow vegetation to respond to changes in CO 2 and climate since the response time of the physiological and structural feedbacks differ. A change in LAI occurs at longer time scales (typically days to months), while the change in g s is almost immediate. We account for this lag by stabilizing the LAI before each simulation

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