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Gregory J. Hakim

share the same PV distribution, so that in the absence of ancillary information, inversion is nonunique. Third, the PV has an unknown relationship to some state variables, particularly those that relate to moisture, and therefore inversion cannot even be defined in these cases. Put differently, it is unclear how well the “PV paradigm” generalizes the notion of balance beyond the classical confines of extratropical dry dynamics. Here we break from the deterministic tradition of previous studies on

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David A. Schecter

above conclusion seems more robust upon considering the effect of moisture. Figure 12 , adapted from SM07 , illustrates the suppression of a linear SI mode by cloud coverage in a barotropic cyclone. As usual, the SI mode consists of an inner DVRW and an outer spiral IG wave (not shown). The azimuthal wavenumber is n = 2, and the vertical wavelength is such that under dry conditions l D = 0.26 R m in which l D is evaluated at r = R m . Because the cyclone is nearly Rankine, the dry value

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