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Jianhua Sun and Sixiong Zhao

; Ding 1992 ), resulting in heavy rain and flash floods ( Ding 1992 ; Zhao et al. 2004 ). In addition to the quasi-stationary front, the trough of the westerlies to the south of the Tibetan Plateau also played an important role in this pattern by transporting warm air and moisture to southern China. This paper studies the following three questions about the freezing precipitation during 2008 in China: 1) Is the 20-day-long persistence of the freezing precipitation event caused by the stable and

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M. Issa Lélé and Peter J. Lamb

coincident zones of maximum horizontal velocity and moisture convergence and rainfall that are the West African manifestations of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) occur a few hundred kilometers south of the ITF, where the monsoon wedge is deeper. Today, the ITF is considered to be important for not only the seasonal-to-interannual climate variability of West Africa, but also for the incidence of the region’s most serious and vector-borne infectious diseases (malaria, meningitis) and its desert

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Howard B. Bluestein

storm and its predecessors were at Dodge City, Kansas (DDC; Fig. 3a ) and Lamont, Oklahoma (LMN; Fig. 3b ), at 0000 UTC. The DDC sounding was characteristic of the air mass behind the dryline; the boundary layer was dry adiabatic and deep, and extended up to about 625 hPa; the moisture was nearly well mixed in this layer. It is seen from the surface map near the time of the sounding ( Fig. 2c ) that the dryline was located somewhere east of DDC. Based on the author’s observations southeast of DDC

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Huijun Wang and Ke Fan

the Development of a European Multi-Model Ensemble System for Seasonal to Inter-Annual Prediction (DEMETER) for providing the model output data. REFERENCES Chen, J. L. , and Huang R. H. , 2008 : Interannual and interdecadal variations of moisture transport by Asian summer monsoon and their association with droughts or floods in China (in Chinese). Chin. J. Geophys. , 51 , 352 – 359 . Ji, M. , Leetmaa A. , and Kousky V. E. , 1996 : Coupled model predictions of ENSO during the 1980s

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Hamish A. Ramsay, Lance M. Leslie, and Jeffrey D. Kepert

model includes a choice of parameterizations for the surface layer and turbulent closure. For these calculations, the surface layer parameterization used Monin–Obukhov similarity theory with the momentum roughness given by a Charnock (1955) relation and the heat and moisture roughness lengths after Liu et al. (1979) , with a Mellor–Yamada level-2.25 closure ( Galperin et al. 1988 ) for levels above that. These parameterizations are similar to those used for the MM5 runs, and it is not expected

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