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Jeffrey D. Massey, W. James Steenburgh, Jason C. Knievel, and William Y. Y. Cheng

) reduced the early morning warm bias in WRF simulations of three fall days over northern Utah through the use of an alternate soil thermal conductivity parameterization combined with soil moisture analyses based on in situ observations. The afternoon cold bias, however, was only partially reduced in Massey et al. (2014) and remains associated with a myriad of plausible, yet untested, error sources including 1) differences between model and observation site elevations ( Liu et al. 2008b

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Sean M. Wile, Joshua P. Hacker, and Kenneth H. Chilcoat

radiative cooling at KSLC; precipitation falling into a weakened inversion and shallow cold pool case, where precipitation increased low-level moisture supporting fog formation; and shallow cold pool advecting from the GSL case, where radiative cooling over the lake enabled fog to form and later move over KSLC. b. Dense fog event At 2243 UTC 23 January 2009, dense fog developed over KSLC, forcing the closure of one runway and prompting the National Weather Service to issue a dense fog warning

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Hailing Zhang, Zhaoxia Pu, and Xuebo Zhang

(ABL) and the near-surface to behave differently from that in the free atmosphere because the ABL transports momentum, heat, and moisture between the earth's surface and the air above. Due to its unique features, accurate forecasts of near-surface atmospheric conditions are very important in many applications such as wind energy, agriculture, aviation, and fire weather forecasts. However, difficulties in forecasting near-surface variables such as temperature and wind have long been recognized and

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