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Yun Lin, Jiwen Fan, Jong-Hoon Jeong, Yuwei Zhang, Cameron R. Homeyer, and Jingyu Wang

al. 2002 ; Shepherd 2005 ; Hubbart et al. 2014 ). Convective storms may be initiated at the UHI convergence zone that is created through a combination of increased temperature and mechanical turbulence resulting from complex urban surface geometry and roughness ( Bornstein and Lin 2000 ; Shepherd 2005 ; Hubbart et al. 2014 ; Liu and Niyogi 2019 ). Urban landscapes can impact sensible and latent heat flux, soil moisture, etc., affecting thunderstorm initiation with a higher frequency in urban

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Alan Shapiro, Evgeni Fedorovich, and Joshua G. Gebauer

.0.CO;2 Charba , J. , 1974 : Application of gravity current model to analysis of squall-line gust front . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 102 , 140 – 156 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1974)102<0140:AOGCMT>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0493(1974)102<0140:AOGCMT>2.0.CO;2 Chen , R. , and L. Tomassini , 2015 : The role of moisture in summertime low-level jet formation and associated rainfall over the East Asian monsoon region . J. Atmos. Sci. , 72 , 3871 – 3890 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-15

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Evgeni Fedorovich, Jeremy A. Gibbs, and Alan Shapiro

and moisture to regions eastward with a potential for convection initiation. In fact, a very similar evolution pattern of the flow velocity ( Fig. 9 ) was observed during one of the intensive observation periods of the recent Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) experiment ( Geerts et al. 2017 ) when convection was indeed observed later in the night. The observed velocity profiles show the same developmental tendencies as their simulated counterparts presented in Fig. 6 . Fig . 7. Height

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David B. Parsons, Kevin R. Haghi, Kelton T. Halbert, Blake Elmer, and Junhong Wang

. Part II: Organization and instability mechanisms . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 118 , 1123 – 1144 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1990)118<1123:TAFSIE>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0493(1990)118<1123:TAFSIE>2.0.CO;2 Crook , N. A. , 1986 : The effect of ambient stratification and moisture on the motion of atmospheric undular bores . J. Atmos. Sci. , 43 , 171 – 181 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1986)043<0171:TEOASA>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0469(1986)043<0171:TEOASA>2.0.CO;2 Crook , N. A. , R. E

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Shushi Zhang, David B. Parsons, and Yuan Wang

of soil moisture and convectively generated waves on the initiation of a West African mesoscale convective system . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 139 , 1712 – 1730 , https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.2062 . 10.1002/qj.2062 Blake , B. T. , D. B. Parsons , K. R. Haghi , and S. G. Castleberry , 2017 : The structure, evolution, and dynamics of a nocturnal convective system simulated using the WRF-ARW Model . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 145 , 3179 – 3201 , https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-16

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