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  • Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) x
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Tammy M. Weckwerth, John Hanesiak, James W. Wilson, Stanley B. Trier, Samuel K. Degelia, William A. Gallus Jr., Rita D. Roberts, and Xuguang Wang

systems do not observe temperature, moisture, or wind conditions at this height with adequate temporal and spatial resolutions. To improve the understanding and forecast skill of NCI, the Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN; Geerts et al. 2017 ) field campaign included NCI as a primary scientific objective. This manuscript brings together past NCI research with data from PECAN to document frequencies and forcing mechanisms of different NCI categories. While the impact of NCI in the U.S. Great

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Bart Geerts, David Parsons, Conrad L. Ziegler, Tammy M. Weckwerth, Michael I. Biggerstaff, Richard D. Clark, Michael C. Coniglio, Belay B. Demoz, Richard A. Ferrare, William A. Gallus Jr., Kevin Haghi, John M. Hanesiak, Petra M. Klein, Kevin R. Knupp, Karen Kosiba, Greg M. McFarquhar, James A. Moore, Amin R. Nehrir, Matthew D. Parker, James O. Pinto, Robert M. Rauber, Russ S. Schumacher, David D. Turner, Qing Wang, Xuguang Wang, Zhien Wang, and Joshua Wurman

stage, before its merger with the mainly internally driven MCS ( Fig. 7 ). The LASE water vapor profiles revealed a ∼200-km-wide region of high water vapor mixing ratio values in the southerly inflow region during the MCS developing stage, a few hours before the Fig. 4 map time. Surface dewpoints were as high as 22°–24°C under this moisture dome, which can be seen to grow deeper and more moist toward the incipient MCS ( Fig. 7 ). The LASE precipitable water over a depth with good-quality data

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Kevin R. Haghi, Bart Geerts, Hristo G. Chipilski, Aaron Johnson, Samuel Degelia, David Imy, David B. Parsons, Rebecca D. Adams-Selin, David D. Turner, and Xuguang Wang

. 1997 ), designed to measure water vapor and aerosols along their flight transects, and the Wyoming King Air with a compact Raman lidar. Time–height sections from the ground-based upward pointing profilers captured horizontal/vertical motion, moisture, and temperature. Pre- and postbore environments were sampled with atmospheric soundings and the Kansas Mesonet recorded changes in temperature, pressure, and winds. It required a lot of planning and a little luck, but the 10–11 July 2015 IOP and other

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