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Kirstin Kober and George C. Craig

relevant to the initiation of convection. In general, the initiation of convection requires certain atmospheric conditions. In synoptic situations without large-scale forcing, convection can develop if instability, measurable by the convective available potential energy (CAPE), as well as local triggers to overcome a possible inversion above the boundary layer, measurable by the convective inhibition (CIN), are available together with moisture in specific heights ( Done et al. 2012 ). The distribution

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Julia H. Keller, Christian M. Grams, Michael Riemer, Heather M. Archambault, Lance Bosart, James D. Doyle, Jenni L. Evans, Thomas J. Galarneau Jr., Kyle Griffin, Patrick A. Harr, Naoko Kitabatake, Ron McTaggart-Cowan, Florian Pantillon, Julian F. Quinting, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Elizabeth A. Ritchie, Ryan D. Torn, and Fuqing Zhang

moves poleward and starts to interact with the midlatitude flow ( Fig. 1a ). This results in the formation of a jet streak ( Fig. 1b ) and a poleward deflection of the jet near the transitioning cyclone in conjunction with the development of a ridge–trough couplet ( Fig. 1b ). At the same time, a region of enhanced moisture flux—a so-called atmospheric river ( Zhu and Newell 1998 )—forms ahead of the downstream trough. The ridge–trough couplet continues to amplify, a new cyclone develops farther

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Hilke S. Lentink, Christian M. Grams, Michael Riemer, and Sarah C. Jones

the forecast errors associated with these changes. For mature TCs that make landfall, on the other hand, many (idealized) studies document the influence of either a flat coastal region or an orographic barrier (e.g., Taiwan) on the track and structural development. When a TC vortex impinges on land, regardless of orography, it has two effects: a reduction of moisture supply and an increase of surface roughness. First, when the inner core is still over the ocean, dry air from land is transported

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Volkmar Wirth, Michael Riemer, Edmund K. M. Chang, and Olivia Martius

rotation and the sphericity of Earth [for an introductory-level text on Rossby waves see Rhines (2002) ]. Rossby waves are in distinct contrast to other types of waves such as gravity waves or sound waves, which rely on gravity or the compressibility of air, respectively, for their basic restoring mechanism. The atmospheric general circulation cannot be understood without reference to Rossby waves because they transfer energy, moisture, and momentum across large distances. This can generate

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