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Joël Arnault, Thomas Rummler, Florian Baur, Sebastian Lerch, Sven Wagner, Benjamin Fersch, Zhenyu Zhang, Noah Kerandi, Christian Keil, and Harald Kunstmann

1. Introduction Numerical atmospheric models generally consider terrestrial hydrological processes as only being vertical, in order to estimate the surface heat fluxes for constraining the atmospheric lower boundary condition. This is, for example, the case for the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model ( Skamarock and Klemp 2008 ) coupled with the Noah land surface model (LSM; Chen and Dudhia 2001 ). In this approach, the lateral redistribution of soil moisture according to the

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Thomas Engel, Andreas H. Fink, Peter Knippertz, Gregor Pante, and Jan Bliefernicht

lesser extent, from evaporation at the continental surface. A convergent humidity flux [with the specific humidity q (kg kg −1 ) and horizontal wind vector (m s −1 )] then causes an accumulation of moisture in the atmospheric column as TPW (kg m −2 ): where p sfc (hPa) is the surface pressure and g = 9.81 m s −2 the gravitational acceleration. The convective available potential energy (CAPE; J kg −1 ; Emanuel 1994 ) is a common measure of convective instability: Here, α pcl and α env

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