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Thomas Engel, Andreas H. Fink, Peter Knippertz, Gregor Pante, and Jan Bliefernicht

lesser extent, from evaporation at the continental surface. A convergent humidity flux [with the specific humidity q (kg kg −1 ) and horizontal wind vector (m s −1 )] then causes an accumulation of moisture in the atmospheric column as TPW (kg m −2 ): where p sfc (hPa) is the surface pressure and g = 9.81 m s −2 the gravitational acceleration. The convective available potential energy (CAPE; J kg −1 ; Emanuel 1994 ) is a common measure of convective instability: Here, α pcl and α env

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