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Peter Vogel, Peter Knippertz, Andreas H. Fink, Andreas Schlueter, and Tilmann Gneiting

organization and coupling to larger-scale circulations. The most important example of such a coupling on weather time scales are equatorial waves, classically referring to planetary-scale solutions of the shallow water equations for the tropics ( Matsuno 1966 ; Wheeler and Kiladis 1999 ). The coupling relies on a wave-induced modification of environmental conditions for convection such as convergence, stability, moisture availability, and shear ( Schlueter et al. 2019a , b ). Although a relatively high

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Roderick van der Linden, Andreas H. Fink, Joaquim G. Pinto, and Tan Phan-Van

, northeastern Vietnam is also frequently affected by the rainbands that are associated with this front ( Xu et al. 2009 ). The South China Sea usually is the main moisture source, but sometimes moisture is also transported from the Bay of Bengal to the mei-yu front ( American Meteorological Society 2016 ). Other synoptic systems affecting the study region with copious rains are tropical cyclones (TCs) that originate in the northwest Pacific and enter the South China Sea. Although the TC season peaks in

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Peter Vogel, Peter Knippertz, Andreas H. Fink, Andreas Schlueter, and Tilmann Gneiting

flatlands, where MCSs during boreal summer provide the bulk of the annual rainfall ( Mathon et al. 2002 ; Fink et al. 2006 ; Houze et al. 2015 ) and convergence lines in the boundary layer or soil moisture gradients at the kilometer scale can act as triggers for MCSs ( Lafore et al. 2017 ). Sahelian MCSs often take the form of meridionally elongated squall lines with sharp leading edges characterized by heavy rainfall. Synoptic-scale African easterly waves are known to be linked to squall

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