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Clément Guilloteau, Efi Foufoula-Georgiou, Christian D. Kummerow, and Veljko Petković

profiles; linear correlation is 0.12. For all panels, regions with surface elevation above 750 m, water bodies, snow-covered areas, and areas where the 0°C isotherm is less than 2000 m above the surface are excluded. As stated before, over land, variations of the surface emissivity affect the observed microwave TBs. While being less variable than at lower frequencies, the surface emissivity at 89 GHz still depends on soil moisture, surface type, and surface temperature. Several methods have been

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Wesley Berg, Stephen Bilanow, Ruiyao Chen, Saswati Datta, David Draper, Hamideh Ebrahimi, Spencer Farrar, W. Linwood Jones, Rachael Kroodsma, Darren McKague, Vivienne Payne, James Wang, Thomas Wilheit, and John Xun Yang

SAPHIR channels are used along with GDAS temperature and pressure profiles matched in time and space to retrieve RH profiles for each matched pixel ( Wang et al. 1997 ). The resulting profiles are used in radiative transfer calculations in the double-difference technique to arrive at the biases of the matched pairs. Only the matched pairs with PW ≥ 6.5 cm are used in order to minimize radiance contributions from the ocean surface. The PW threshold was determined based on an analysis of moisture

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