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Jean-François Caron and Luc Fillion

, originally on a global latitude–longitude grid of 0.3° (∼33 km) horizontal resolution, were interpolated to a regional rotated latitude–longitude grid of 0.49° (∼55 km) horizontal resolution covering the North American continent and its adjacent oceans ( Fig. 1 ). The characteristics of the data are summarized in Table 1 . The domain and the resolution adopted for the lagged forecast difference fields correspond to the three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3D-Var) grid configuration of the

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Takemasa Miyoshi, Yoshiaki Sato, and Takashi Kadowaki

averaged temperature ensemble spread shows a sudden increase around layers 31, 38, and 40, but the case with additive inflation (ADD) indicates no such strange behavior. If we look at the horizontal map of the temperature ensemble spread at the 31st level (∼50 hPa; Fig. 6 ), MUL shows unrealistic values of about 25 K over the North Pacific, but ADD does not show such abnormal values. Moreover, ADD indicates a much smaller land–sea pattern than MUL. The results suggest that multiplicative inflation

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Loïk Berre and Gérald Desroziers

domain, which is represented in Fig. 9 . The top panel of Fig. 9 is a map of raw innovation standard deviations from this study, averaged over the whole year period, and normalized in such a way that the mean field is 1.0 over the continental European area. Relatively small values can be observed over data-dense regions such as Europe and North America. In contrast, larger values are observed over oceanic regions, where storm tracks are located, and where fewer observations are available. On the

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