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Xiangzhou Song and Lisan Yu

their extensions, (e.g., the Kuroshio and its extension off the coast of Japan and the Gulf Stream off the coast of North America), with magnitude exceeding 120 W m −2 . In the austral wintertime, SHF with moderate magnitude (<60 W m −2 ) tends to occur in the boundary current regions in the Southern Hemisphere, such as the Agulhas Current and its extension off the coast of South Africa, the Leeuwin Current and the Eastern Australian Current off the respective western and eastern coasts of Australia

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Richard I. Cullather and Michael G. Bosilovich

transports across 70°N from ERA-40 as reported by Serreze et al. (2007) , MERRA transports shown in Fig. 5a are comparable but with some differences. First, the poleward (positive) flux centered near 315°E (45°W) has a smaller zonal extent than is shown in Serreze et al.. This may be due to the higher spatial resolution of MERRA and the role of Greenland topography in defining the midtropospheric trough pattern over eastern North America. Second, the wintertime poleward transport near 150°E is shown

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Xiaolei Niu and Rachel T. Pinker

radiative fluxes. They have been evaluated against ARM-NSA observations of radiative fluxes and cloud products. The intercomparison of four reanalysis products [the National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP–NCAR) global reanalysis, the 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-40), the NCEP–NCAR North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR), and the Japan Meteorological Agency and Central Research Institute of

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Matthew R. Mazloff

through Drake Passage is given by the across passage difference of the vertically integrated transport streamfunction (e.g., Gill 1968 ). This streamfunction has been shown to be approximately proportional to sea level in the Drake Passage ( Meredith et al. 2004 ), and thus the strength of the ACC becomes proportional to the sea level difference between the land boundaries to the north (i.e., Africa, Australia, and South America) and south (i.e., Antarctica). Consistent with this inference, the ACC

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