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Bruce Albrecht, Virendra Ghate, Johannes Mohrmann, Robert Wood, Paquita Zuidema, Christopher Bretherton, Christian Schwartz, Edwin Eloranta, Susanne Glienke, Shaunna Donaher, Mampi Sarkar, Jeremy McGibbon, Alison D. Nugent, Raymond A. Shaw, Jacob Fugal, Patrick Minnis, Robindra Paliknoda, Louis Lussier, Jorgen Jensen, J. Vivekanandan, Scott Ellis, Peisang Tsai, Robert Rilling, Julie Haggerty, Teresa Campos, Meghan Stell, Michael Reeves, Stuart Beaton, John Allison, Gregory Stossmeister, Samuel Hall, and Sebastian Schmidt

The evolution of the boundary layer aerosol, cloud, precipitation, and thermodynamic structures along trajectories within the North Pacific trade winds was investigated using the NSF–NCAR Gulfstream V. Boundary layer clouds in the form of stratocumulus and small marine cumulus are the most frequently observed cloud types over the Earth’s oceans, are the most abundant types globally ( Norris 1998 ), and have an important impact on the Earth’s radiation budget ( Hartmann and Short 1980 ). The

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Vasubandhu Misra and Amit Bhardwaj

: Model climatology of the North American monsoon onset period during 1980–2001 . J. Climate , 17 , 3892 – 3906 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017<3892:MCOTNA>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017<3892:MCOTNA>2.0.CO;2 Yanai , M. , C. Li , and Z. Song , 1992 : Seasonal heating of the Tibetan Plateau and its effects on the evolution of the Asian summer monsoon . J. Meteor. Soc. Japan , 70 , 319 – 351 , https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj1965.70.1B_319 . 10.2151/jmsj1965.70.1B_319

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Mampi Sarkar, Paquita Zuidema, Bruce Albrecht, Virendra Ghate, Jorgen Jensen, Johannes Mohrmann, and Robert Wood

layer CO mixing ratios are within 66–78 ppbv (73–78 ppbv for 6a to 7a-c, 66–72 ppbv for 6b to 7d, 7e, and 69–75ppbv for 14b to 15c-d) for the 17–19 July and 7–9 August flight pairs. The variations are less than the measurement error. The 27–29 July flight pair is an outlier with boundary layer CO mixing ratios exceeding 110 ppbv, capped by free-tropospheric values that range from 60 to about 300 ppbv. The elevated values reflect the influence of biomass burning smoke from fires in North America

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