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Wen-wen Tung, Dimitrios Giannakis, and Andrew J. Majda

previous studies of diurnal cycles over the ocean, the diurnal modes presented here mainly describe the symmetric and antisymmetric signals of convective variability over tropical landmasses, such as Africa and South America, and the antisymmetric signal over the Maritime Continent. 6. Conclusions and future work In this work, we have studied the significance of north–south asymmetry in convection associated with the 20–90-day MJO propagating across the equatorial Indo-Pacific warm pool region using

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Douglas C. Stolz, Steven A. Rutledge, Weixin Xu, and Jeffrey R. Pierce

resolution used in the model (roughly 200 km in the horizontal, 10 vertical levels between 1000 and 850 hPa). Note that the difference between modeled and observed values of N40 was shown to be less than a factor of 1.17, on average, for comparisons between GEOS-Chem and multiple ground stations between North America and Europe ( D’Andrea et al. 2013 ). Plumes of continental aerosols have been shown to exist primarily in layers extending up to 400–3000 m above the ocean surface in remote regions of the

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Tim Li, Chongbo Zhao, Pang-chi Hsu, and Tomoe Nasuno

. Discussion a. Role of upper-tropospheric circumnavigating signals An important issue related to MJO initiation is, what is the role of global circumnavigation of upper-tropospheric divergent signals associated with a preceding MJO? From the evolutions of the 20–100-day filtered upper-tropospheric velocity potential field ( Fig. 8 ), one can see that, on both of the initiation dates (14 October and 14 November), anomalous upper-tropospheric divergence centers appeared over the South America

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Zhe Feng, Sally A. McFarlane, Courtney Schumacher, Scott Ellis, Jennifer Comstock, and Nitin Bharadwaj

and rainfall associated with the Asian summer monsoon ( Annamalai and Slingo 2001 ), Australian summer monsoon ( Hendon and Liebmann 1990 ), and North American monsoon ( Lorenz and Hartmann 2006 ). The MJO also interacts with the North Atlantic Oscillation ( Lin et al. 2009 ), the Arctic Oscillation ( Zhou and Miller 2005 ), and the Antarctic Oscillation ( Carvalho et al. 2005 ). Global climate models generally underestimate the strength and intraseasonal variability of the MJO ( Zhang et al. 2006

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James H. Ruppert Jr. and Richard H. Johnson

, which are inconsequential for the objectives of this study. Similar analysis approaches to those described above have been successfully applied in many previous tropical and monsoon field campaigns [e.g., the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE), the South China Sea Monsoon Experiment, the North American Monsoon Experiment, and the Terrain-influenced Monsoon Rainfall Experiment], which have confirmed the reliability of results via comparison with

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Kacie E. Hoover, John R. Mecikalski, Timothy J. Lang, Xuanli Li, Tyler J. Castillo, and Themis Chronis

Niña that reached its peak from November 2011 to February 2012, with Niño-3.4 sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies of roughly −1°C. There was a positive Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) signal during October that dissipated by December. The warmest SSTs in the Indian Ocean were located to the north of the equator and were roughly 29°–30°C ( Gottschalck et al. 2013 ). The upward branch of the Walker circulation was located over the eastern Indian Ocean (60°–150°E) and the descending portion over the

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