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Stephen M. Griffies, Michael Winton, Leo J. Donner, Larry W. Horowitz, Stephanie M. Downes, Riccardo Farneti, Anand Gnanadesikan, William J. Hurlin, Hyun-Chul Lee, Zhi Liang, Jaime B. Palter, Bonita L. Samuels, Andrew T. Wittenberg, Bruce L. Wyman, Jianjun Yin, and Niki Zadeh

, with this increased radiation extending eastward from East Asia. The bias reduction in shortwave radiation is attributed to an improved treatment of aerosols and clouds in AM3 ( Donner et al. 2011 ). 3) North Atlantic A dominant pattern of North Atlantic SST bias is the cold spot east of Newfoundland and a warm bias next to the east coast of North America. This bias is associated with a poor representation of the North Atlantic Current as it extends northward from the Gulf Stream. Given the strong

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Leo J. Donner, Bruce L. Wyman, Richard S. Hemler, Larry W. Horowitz, Yi Ming, Ming Zhao, Jean-Christophe Golaz, Paul Ginoux, S.-J. Lin, M. Daniel Schwarzkopf, John Austin, Ghassan Alaka, William F. Cooke, Thomas L. Delworth, Stuart M. Freidenreich, C. T. Gordon, Stephen M. Griffies, Isaac M. Held, William J. Hurlin, Stephen A. Klein, Thomas R. Knutson, Amy R. Langenhorst, Hyun-Chul Lee, Yanluan Lin, Brian I. Magi, Sergey L. Malyshev, P. C. D. Milly, Vaishali Naik, Mary J. Nath, Robert Pincus, Jeffrey J. Ploshay, V. Ramaswamy, Charles J. Seman, Elena Shevliakova, Joseph J. Sirutis, William F. Stern, Ronald J. Stouffer, R. John Wilson, Michael Winton, Andrew T. Wittenberg, and Fanrong Zeng

, respectively. Observed warming is intermediate between the CM2.1 and CM3 warming. In the following sections, CM3 analyses are restricted to 1981–2000 averages. Considerable interensemble variability is likely at higher time resolution. b. Radiation and surface fluxes Annual-mean shortwave absorption by the earth–atmosphere system in AM3 and the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) ( Harrison et al. 1990 ) ( Fig. 9 ) agree within 5 W m −2 over most of North America, the central Pacific Ocean, and

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