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Pablo Imbach, Luis Molina, Bruno Locatelli, Olivier Roupsard, Gil Mahé, Ronald Neilson, Lenin Corrales, Marko Scholze, and Philippe Ciais

2011 ; Greenheck 2002 ). It is a repository of the evolutionary history of biodiversity ( Sechrest et al. 2002 ) and a bridge between North and South America for mammals ( MacFadden 2006 ), birds ( Weir et al. 2009 ), and plants ( Gentry 1982 ). Countries in the region have developed national and regional policies for integrating biodiversity conservation and development [e.g., the Central American System of Protected Areas ( http://www.sica.int/ ) and the Puebla–Panama plan ( http

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Paul A. Dirmeyer

precipitation over random land surface initialization in certain areas of the globe out to 45–60 days. This skill increase is greatest when the magnitudes of the initial soil wetness anomalies are largest. There are, however, different responses to wet versus dry anomalies, and considerable variability among GCMs ( Koster et al. 2011 ). Regional differences in the response exist; impacts are less over Europe than North America because of spatial variations in the potential predictability gain from soil

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Shizuo Suzuki, Masayuki Yokozawa, Kazuyuki Inubushi, Toshihiko Hara, Michitoshi Kimura, Shoichi Tsuga, Yasuhiro Tako, and Yuji Nakamura

marshes ( Brix 1999 ). Throughout the twentieth century, the distribution of the species was enlarged and P. australis was reported in all of the lower 48 U.S. states and across southern Canada ( Chambers et al. 1999 ; Saltonstall 2002 ). The species is regarded as an aggressive invader in North America ( Chambers et al. 1999 ; Rice et al. 2000 ). On the other hand, in Europe, the balance between the progression and regression of the species has recently shifted toward a process of die back

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Akihiko Ito and Motoko Inatomi

ranging from <0.2 g C kg −1 H 2 O in deserts of northern and southern Africa, the western United States, Australia, and western and central Asia to >1.5 g C kg −1 H 2 O in boreal forests and tundra of North America, Eurasia, and the Tibetan Plateau. Most humid forest ecosystems showed intermediate WUE S (0.6–1.2 g C kg −1 H 2 O). Fig . 3. Global distribution of (a) AET and (b) annual NPP, simulated by the VISIT model for 1995–2004. Fig . 4. Global distribution of (a) WUE C , defined as NPP

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Minseok Kang, Hyojung Kwon, Jung Hwa Cheon, and Joon Kim

performance . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 63 , 1309 – 1313 . Willmott, C. J. , and Matsuura K. , 2005 : Advantages of the mean absolute error (MAE) over the root mean square error (RMSE) in assessing average model performance . Climate Res. , 30 , 79 – 82 . Wilson, K. B. , and Baldocchi D. D. , 2000 : Seasonal and interannual variability of energy fluxes over a broadleaved temperate deciduous forest in North America . Agric. For. Meteor. , 100 , 1 – 18 . Wilson, K. B. , and Coauthors

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