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Scott A. Braun, Paul A. Newman, and Gerald M. Heymsfield

HS3 was a multiyear field campaign to measure environmental and inner-core processes that lead to storm formation and intensification into major hurricanes. Almost 60 million Americans live within counties along the East and Gulf Coasts (140 million total in East and Gulf Coast states), thus exposing them to the potential destruction caused by a landfalling hurricane. Societal vulnerability to damage has increased primarily because of growth in both population and wealth in coastal zones from

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E. P. Nowottnick, P. R. Colarco, S. A. Braun, D. O. Barahona, A. da Silva, D. L. Hlavka, M. J. McGill, and J. R. Spackman

1. Introduction During Northern Hemisphere summer, African easterly waves (AEWs) originating from continental North Africa can develop into tropical disturbances that propagate westward to the tropical North Atlantic ( Burpee 1972 ; Thorncroft and Hodges 2001 ; Kiladis et al. 2006 ; Chen et al. 2008 ). Often, these disturbances develop in close proximity to the dry Saharan air layer (SAL), which is frequently laden with dust aerosols ( Carlson and Prospero 1972 ; Karyampudi et al. 1999

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Erin B. Munsell, Fuqing Zhang, Jason A. Sippel, Scott A. Braun, and Yonghui Weng

Vertical Atmospheric Profiling System (AVAPS) during HS3 flights ( Braun et al. 2016 ) are also assimilated. Three two-way nested Mercator-projected domains are utilized with horizontal grid spacing of 27, 9, and 3 km, which contain 378 × 243, 297 × 297, and 297 × 297 grid points, respectively. The outer domain is fixed and includes the majority of North America and the North Atlantic Ocean, while the inner domains move with the surface vortex of the TC of interest. All three domains contain 43

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Erin B. Munsell, Jason A. Sippel, Scott A. Braun, Yonghui Weng, and Fuqing Zhang

nonradiance observations besides airborne reconnaissance measurements ( Weng and Zhang 2014 ). Three two-way nested domains are used with horizontal grid spacings of 27, 9, and 3 km, which contain areas of 10 200 km × 6600 km (378 × 243 grid points), 2700 km × 2700 km (303 × 303 grid points), and 900 km × 900 km (303 × 303 grid points). The outermost domain is fixed and encompasses the majority of the North Atlantic Ocean and North America. The inner two domains are movable, with the center of the domain

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