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Allison E. Goodwell

central United States, precipitation fluctuations are subject to both tropical and northern Pacific sea surface temperatures at different time scales ( Ting and Wang 1997 ). The Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) has been found to influence winter air temperatures and precipitation in North America ( NOAA 2019d ; Mantua et al. 1997 ), and multiple Pacific climate indices have been linked to long-term U.S. droughts during the warm season ( Barlow et al. 2001 ). Meanwhile, the Atlantic multidecadal

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Abby Stevens, Rebecca Willett, Antonios Mamalakis, Efi Foufoula-Georgiou, Alejandro Tejedor, James T. Randerson, Padhraic Smyth, and Stephen Wright

and strength of the wintertime jet stream, which can then bring more (or fewer) winter storms to the SWUS, leading to wet (or dry) conditions over the SWUS and dry (or wet) conditions over the northwestern United States. However, recent research shows that the ENSO effect on the atmospheric pressure and (consequently) on precipitation over the eastern Pacific and North America has been decreasing in strength during the last 3–4 decades, while many studies have highlighted to a greater or lesser

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Giuseppe Mascaro

metropolitan area ( Fig. 1a ). The majority of the region is part of the Sonoran Desert where elevation is low (from 200 to 600 m MSL), while a minor portion is located in the transition zone to the Colorado Plateau, where elevation reaches up to 2000 m MSL in the Mogollon Rim. Climate is arid and characterized by a strong seasonality affecting the rainfall regime. In the summer months from July to September, the occurrence of the North American monsoon leads to localized convective thunderstorms with high

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Clément Guilloteau, Antonios Mamalakis, Lawrence Vulis, Phong V. V. Le, Tryphon T. Georgiou, and Efi Foufoula-Georgiou

. , and E. Foufoula-Georgiou , 1997 : Wavelet analysis for geophysical applications . Rev. Geophys. , 35 , 385 – 412 , https://doi.org/10.1029/97RG00427 . 10.1029/97RG00427 Leathers , D. J. , B. Yarnal , and M. A. Palecki , 1991 : The Pacific/North American teleconnection pattern and United States climate. Part I: Regional temperature and precipitation associations . J. Climate , 4 , 517 – 528 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1991)004<0517:TPATPA>2.0.CO;2 . 10

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Sarah Ringerud, Christa Peters-Lidard, Joe Munchak, and Yalei You

, 2000 : Automated monitoring of snow cover over North America with multispectral satellite data . J. Appl. Meteor. , 39 , 1866 – 1880 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(2000)039<1866:AMOSCO>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0450(2000)039<1866:AMOSCO>2.0.CO;2 Shahroudi , N. , and W. Rossow , 2014 : Using land surface microwave emissivities to isolate the signature of snow on different surface types . Remote Sens. Environ. , 152 , 638 – 653 , https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2014.07.008 . 10.1016/j

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Lisa Milani, Mark S. Kulie, Daniele Casella, Pierre E. Kirstetter, Giulia Panegrossi, Veljko Petkovic, Sarah E. Ringerud, Jean-François Rysman, Paolo Sanò, Nai-Yu Wang, Yalei You, and Gail Skofronick-Jackson

. Environ. Res. Lett. , 10 , 024010 , https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/10/2/024010 . 10.1088/1748-9326/10/2/024010 Rodgers , C. D. , 2000 : Inverse Methods for Atmospheric Sounding: Theory and Practice . World Scientific, 238 pp . 10.1142/3171 Romanov , P. , G. Gutman , and I. Csiszar , 2000 : Automated monitoring of snow cover over North America with multispectral satellite data . J. Appl. Meteor. , 39 , 1866 – 1880 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(2000)039<1866:AMOSCO>2.0.CO;2

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Chandra Rupa Rajulapati, Simon Michael Papalexiou, Martyn P. Clark, Saman Razavi, Guoqiang Tang, and John W. Pomeroy

with winter minima in precipitation have heavy tails ( γ PII > 0.3 and γ W < 0.45). Warm, humid, temperate climates with higher precipitation show light to medium tails. The polar regions with temperature maxima < 10°C, characteristic of tundra, generally have medium tails. While northern North America and Asia, where there is a seasonal snow cover and a humid continental climate, have medium to heavy tails, the subhumid continental climate interior regions have heavy to medium heavy tails. In

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Stephen E. Lang and Wei-Kuo Tao

split echo-top LUTs. At upper levels (e.g., 7 km, Fig. 16 ), the heating patterns and mean intensities are fairly similar between the GPM and TRMM retrievals with strong areas of heating over equatorial Africa, northern South America, the Maritime Continent, and within a sharp, well-defined ITCZ extending across the central and east Pacific. Other areas of prominent heating in the equatorial Atlantic, the SPCZ, and the equatorial Indian Ocean are also similar in shape and magnitude when allowing

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Samantha H. Hartke, Daniel B. Wright, Dalia B. Kirschbaum, Thomas A. Stanley, and Zhe Li

.1596/0-8213-5930-4 . Doom , J. , 2018 : Landslide kills two in North Carolina. ABC News , 31 May , https://abcnews.go.com/US/landslide-kills-north-carolina/story?id=55553200 . Fang , H. , H. K. Beaudoing , M. Rodell , W. L. Teng , and B. E. Vollmer , 2009 : Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) products, services and application from NASA Hydrology Data and Information Services Center (HDISC). ASPRS 2009 Annual Conf. , Baltimore, MD, American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 9

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Phu Nguyen, Mohammed Ombadi, Vesta Afzali Gorooh, Eric J. Shearer, Mojtaba Sadeghi, Soroosh Sorooshian, Kuolin Hsu, David Bolvin, and Martin F. Ralph

tropical regions of Africa, South America, and Asia. In addition, it underestimates bands of high precipitation in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean, northern Pacific Ocean along the coast of western Canada, and over the Southern Hemisphere oceans. This last observation is clearly shown in Fig. 1d , which shows the average zonal annual precipitation. In particular, PERSIANN-CCS (blue line) deviates significantly from IMERGF over the latitudes (−60°, −20°) indicating considerable underestimation. On the

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