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Tufa Dinku, Franklyn Ruiz, Stephen J. Connor, and Pietro Ceccato

products. These differences may lead to differences in the accuracy of these estimates over different regions of the world. Thus, the evaluation of the different satellite rainfall estimates over different climatic and geographic regions is very important. This will be useful in identifying specific weaknesses and strengths of the different products under different circumstances. However, the evaluation of these products, particularly over Africa and South America, has been very limited. Yet it may be

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Feyera A. Hirpa, Mekonnen Gebremichael, and Thomas Hopson

mountainous region of Mexico, Hong et al. (2007) compared the PERSIANN Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS; a variant of PERSIANN) with the North American Monsoon Experiment Event Rain Gauge Network (see Gochis et al. 2003 ; Gebremichael et al. 2007 ) for summer 2004. They reported that elevation-dependent biases exist in PERSIANN-CCS products that are characterized by an underestimate in the occurrence of light precipitation at high elevations and an overestimate in the occurrence of

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Zhong Liu, Hualan Rui, William Teng, Long Chiu, Gregory Leptoukh, and Steven Kempler

passed to the CGI scripts for processing. OPIT data ( http://www.bom.gov.au/bmrc/SatRainVal/IPWG_precip_archive.html ) are provided by the International Precipitation Working Group (IPWG) ( http://www.isac.cnr.it/~ipwg/ ). Currently available products in OPIT are daily multisatellite rainfall (TMPA-RT, version 5; global, 2005), daily rain gauge (North America, 2005), and daily radar rain (North America, 2005). TMPA-RT is a 3-hourly near-real-time TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis product

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Axel Andersson, Christian Klepp, Karsten Fennig, Stephan Bakan, Hartmut Grassl, and Jörg Schulz

distinct in the comparison of HOAPS with NOCS and ERA, while the comparison with the IFREMER dataset exhibits some similar tendencies, but mostly smaller values below 1 mm day −1 . The magnitudes of the deviations are regionally largest in the comparison with NOCS, reaching more than 1.5 mm day −1 or 20% of the average value. In the comparison with IFREMER the relative differences are generally below 5%–10%. In a broad band from the Kuroshio over the North Pacific to the North American east coast ERA

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J. J. Shi, W-K. Tao, T. Matsui, R. Cifelli, A. Hou, S. Lang, A. Tokay, N-Y. Wang, C. Peters-Lidard, G. Skofronick-Jackson, S. Rutledge, and W. Petersen

scheme in WRF is tested for two distinct snowstorm events observed over the C3VP site in Ontario between 0000 UTC 20 January and 0000 UTC 23 January 2007. Observations from the Environment Canada King City (Ontario) radar, in situ aircraft measurements, and CloudSat are used to validate the model simulations. The Great Lakes of North America are unique water bodies that have a large enough surface area to inject appreciable amounts of relatively warm water vapor into passing cold Arctic air masses

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M. Tugrul Yilmaz, Paul Houser, Roshan Shrestha, and Valentine G. Anantharaj

satellite–based product using longwave IR imagery with an artificial neural network–based technique ( Sorooshian et al. 2000 ), NRL, a geosynchronous satellite–based product blended with passive microwave satellite data ( Turk and Miller 2005 ), NCEP Stage IV, a gauge-corrected radar product ( Fulton et al. 1998 ), the Rapid Update Cycle 20-km (RUC 20) model-based product ( Benjamin et al. 2002 ), and North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) precipitation dataset, a gauge-based radar

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Cristian Mitrescu, Tristan L’Ecuyer, John Haynes, Steven Miller, and Joseph Turk

in the morphology of the cloud (i.e., a two-layer cloud structure emerges) as the scan progresses north. Figure 2 (second panel) demonstrates the profiling capabilities of CloudSat and both the performances and limitations of the present retrieval algorithm as it shows profiles of the retrieved LWC and ice water content (IWC) only for cases where the precipitation flag is set. Because of the ground clutter problems, only gates above 1 km are being processed. The melting layer is again clearly

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Shelley L. Knuth, Gregory J. Tripoli, Jonathan E. Thom, and George A. Weidner

by the AWS are transmitted in real time to the Argos data collection system (DCS) on polar-orbiting satellites, and the stored onboard data are retransmitted to several ground receiving stations and forwarded to Collecte de Localisation Satellite (CLS) America for archival and processing. A monthly data CD is then provided to the Antarctic Meteorological Research Center (AMRC), which distributes the data. The sensors added to detect snow depth change at individual sites for this study were

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