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Hamed Ashouri, Phu Nguyen, Andrea Thorstensen, Kuo-lin Hsu, Soroosh Sorooshian, and Dan Braithwaite

:// ). From the hydrological modeling perspective, Su et al. (2008) forced the VIC with TMPA precipitation data over La Plata basin in South America. The study reported that the TMPA-driven simulations were able to capture the daily flooding events and to represent low flows, although upward biases were identified in peak flows. Another study over the Amazon basin ( Collischonn et al. 2008 ) showed that the TRMM-based simulated hydrographs depicted comparable performance to those calculated from rain

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Ali Behrangi, Bin Guan, Paul J. Neiman, Mathias Schreier, and Bjorn Lambrigtsen

over land, however, relies mainly on scattering properties of ice particles, partly because quantification of emissivity over land is difficult and is an ongoing challenge ( Ferraro et al. 2013 ). This has limited the performance of MW-based precipitation retrievals in capturing warm rainfall observed in many regions ( Liu and Zipser 2009 ) including the North American west coast (e.g., Neiman et al. 2005 ; Martner et al. 2008 ). Furthermore, the presence of ice and snow on the surface adds more

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Mark S. Kulie, Lisa Milani, Norman B. Wood, Samantha A. Tushaus, Ralf Bennartz, and Tristan S. L’Ecuyer

1. Introduction Accumulating surface snowfall is generated from cloud structures with varying vertical extent and underlying formation mechanisms. For instance, midlatitude winter cyclones with complex dynamical forcing produce snowfall from incipient cloud structures typically extending into the mid- to upper troposphere. Common examples of snowfall events associated with deeper clouds in the continental North American region include U.S. East Coast winter storms (e.g., Kocin and Uccellini

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Toshi Matsui, Jiun-Dar Chern, Wei-Kuo Tao, Stephen Lang, Masaki Satoh, Tempei Hashino, and Takuji Kubota

clouds have no drizzle signal or are undetectable by the PR instrument ( Matsui et al. 2004 ). The majority of shallow precipitation occurs over ocean ( Schumacher and Houze 2003 ), while shallow precipitation frequency over land is limited to coastal regions. Shallow cold is more frequently found near the subtropical boundaries because of the presence of wintertime midlatitude frontal systems and also over mountainous regions, such as the Rocky Mountains in North America, the western slopes of the

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E. Cattani, A. Merino, and V. Levizzani

. , 1995 : On the application of cluster analysis to growing season precipitation data in North America east of the Rockies . J. Climate , 8 , 897 – 931 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(1995)008<0897:OTAOCA>2.0.CO;2 . Grimes, D. I. F. , Pardo-Igúzquiza E. , and Bonifacio R. , 1999 : Optimal areal rainfall estimation using raingauges and satellite data . J. Hydrol. , 222 , 93 – 108 , doi: 10.1016/S0022-1694(99)00092-X . Haile, A. T. , Habib E. , Elsaadani M. , and Rientjes T. , 2013

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Abebe Sine Gebregiorgis, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, Yang E. Hong, Nicholas J. Carr, Jonathan J. Gourley, Walt Petersen, and Yaoyao Zheng

significant findings and lists potential future research directions. 2. Study region and datasets a. Description of the study domain and reference precipitation data The implementation of weather radar networks over North America, specifically, the Next Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD) network over the United States, has greatly improved our ability to monitor and measure surface precipitation ( Crum et al. 1993 ). Because of the availability of high-quality radar reference data, this study was conducted

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