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Weiyue Zhang, Zhongfeng Xu, and Weidong Guo

as Europe and North America, LULCC can result in a surface temperature cooling of 1° to 2°C primarily because of the increased land surface albedo ( Brovkin et al. 1999 ; Betts et al. 2007 ; Oleson et al. 2004 ; Bala et al. 2007 ; Davin and de Noblet-Ducoudré 2010 ; de Noblet-Ducoudré et al. 2012 ). Lawrence and Chase (2010) found that land-cover change results in a widespread regional warming and drying of the near-surface atmosphere but has a limited global influence on near

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Zhao Yang, Francina Dominguez, Hoshin Gupta, Xubin Zeng, and Laura Norman

expected to hit 16 million (Maricopa Association of Governments 2005, unpublished report). NALC: The 2005 North American Land Cover (NALC) data, classified using MODIS data (250 m), describing current land use/land cover ( Commission for Environmental Cooperation 2013 ). The higher-resolution datasets (SLEUTH and MAG) were resampled to a uniform 250-m resolution to mimic the MODIS-derived NALC data and then reprojected into Lambert azimuthal equal area. The NALC data were reclassified to the MODIS 20

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Soumaya Belmecheri, Flurin Babst, Amy R. Hudson, Julio Betancourt, and Valerie Trouet

1. Introduction Midlatitude extreme weather events, especially when they are persistent and broad-scale, have significant socioeconomic and ecosystem impacts that encompass densely populated, intensely managed, and protected natural areas ( WMO 2010 ). In North America alone, the last decade has been marked by several unprecedented and large-scale extreme weather events ( WMO 2010 ; Coumou and Rahmstorf 2012 ). In 2012, for instance, record high March temperatures and the earliest spring in

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Yaqian He and Eungul Lee

. , 2006 : More plants make more rain. Accessed 16 January 2015. [Available online at http://www.nature.com/news/2006/060925/full/news060925-1.html .] Von Storch , H. , and F. W. Zwiers , 2001 : Statistical Analysis in Climate Research. Cambridge University Press, 496 pp . Wang , W. , B. T. Anderson , N. Phillips , R. K. Kaufmann , C. Porter , and R. B. Myneni , 2006 : Feedbacks of vegetation on summertime climate variability over the North American grasslands. Part I

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Edward Armstrong, Paul Valdes, Jo House, and Joy Singarayer

, North America (NA), and globally for the different model simulations in Figure 4 . Table 3 gives the global-mean annual, JJA, and DJF temperature and precipitation values and the anomaly due to LUC in brackets. Figure 3. Mean (top) SAT (°C) and (bottom) precipitation (% change) anomalies due to LUC during Northern Hemisphere summer (JJA). Anomalies are 99% confident according to a Student’s t test. Figure 4. Mean global, European, and NA SAT anomalies due to LUC for the different model

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Andres Schmidt, Beverly E. Law, Mathias Göckede, Chad Hanson, Zhenlin Yang, and Stephen Conley

1. Introduction The vertical exchange of CO 2 between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere constitutes the largest, single-component flux in the global carbon cycle (e.g., Beer et al. 2010 ). Spatiotemporal patterns of flux exchange display pronounced variability between regions. The Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the United States represents one of the strongest carbon sinks in North America (e.g., Law et al. 2004 ; Law and Waring 2015 ). Accurate quantification of the magnitude of

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Dev Niyogi, Ming Lei, Chandra Kishtawal, Paul Schmid, and Marshall Shepherd

, Central, East North Central, South, and Southeast ( x -axis unit: mm; scale factor: 100; y axis: probability). 3.2. Heavy rainfall downwind of urban areas The higher rainfall anomaly seen downwind of urban areas has been documented by different studies ( Shepherd 2005 ). To assess the downwind region in the monthly rainfall dataset, the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) wind fields at 32-km grid spacing and the winds at 850-mb level from 1990 to 2006 were used to match the rainfall amount

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W. L. Ellenburg, R. T. McNider, J. F. Cruise, and John R. Christy

the enumerated causes is necessary to simulate the record. Recently, authors have pointed to a slowing of the Atlantic Ocean overturning circulation as a further causal mechanism ( Rahmstorf et al. 2015 ). The magnitude of the midcentury cooling trend is most striking over North America as compared to the other continents ( Hartmann et al. 2013 ). However, this phenomenon does not appear to be evenly distributed over the whole of the region ( Zhang et al. 2000 ; Portmann et al. 2009 ; Lawrence

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Zhijuan Liu, Xiaoguang Yang, Xiaomao Lin, Kenneth G. Hubbard, Shuo Lv, and Jing Wang

in China), much shallower than that in the North America, which usually reaches 35 cm on average ( Cai et al. 2014 ). The shallow and compacted topsoil not only restricts the root development of plants but hinders their absorption of nutrients and water. The poor soil properties also reduce their tolerance to abiotic stress, especially resistance against natural disasters ( Zhang and Li 2010 ; Cai et al. 2014 ). To improve the situation farmers should follow recommendations of agronomists to

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G. Strandberg and E. Kjellström

climate models (RCMs) enables studies of local effects. RCMs improve the representation of regional-scale climate features (e.g., Rummukainen 2010 ). For future climates, the effects of afforestation have been studied with RCMs in Europe (e.g., Wramneby et al. 2010 ; Gálos et al. 2012 ), North America (e.g., Alexandru and Sushama 2016 ), Africa (e.g., Wu et al. 2016 ), and South America (e.g., Wu et al. 2017 ). The main finding is that the climate mitigation benefits of afforestation (due to CO

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