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Sonja Gisinger, Andreas Dörnbrack, Vivien Matthias, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, Benedikt Ehard, Lars Hoffmann, Bernd Kaifler, Christopher G. Kruse, and Markus Rapp

values in April–June (0.8, 0.5, and 0.2) to negative values in July–September (−0.2, −0.7, and −0.7), indicating an increasing tendency for southwesterly flows and blocking over New Zealand. The index of the southern annular mode (SAM) or Antarctic Oscillation (AAO) is calculated as the difference of the normalized zonal MSLP between 40° and 60°S ( Gong and Wang 1999 ). During JJA, the STJ and PFJ are two bands of strong westerlies that, climatologically, are located north and south of New Zealand at

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Martina Bramberger, Andreas Dörnbrack, Henrike Wilms, Steffen Gemsa, Kevin Raynor, and Robert Sharman

and Ágústsson 2009 ; Lane et al. 2009 ; Sharman et al. 2012a ). Greenland is of particular importance as it is located underneath the highly frequented North Atlantic flight tracks connecting Europe and North America. The Graphical Turbulence Guidance (GTG) product provides automated, aircraft-type-independent turbulence forecasts for CAT and MWT at all flight levels (FL) from surface to the lower stratosphere (FL500; “500” indicates 50 000 ft, with 1 ft ≈ 0.3 m) ( Sharman et al. 2006 ; Sharman

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Claudia Christine Stephan, Cornelia Strube, Daniel Klocke, Manfred Ern, Lars Hoffmann, Peter Preusse, and Hauke Schmidt

formulation . J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. , 59 , 371 – 386 , https://doi.org/10.1016/S1364-6826(96)00079-X . 10.1016/S1364-6826(96)00079-X Hoffmann , L. , and M. J. Alexander , 2010 : Occurrence frequency of convective gravity waves during the North American thunderstorm season . J. Geophys. Res. , 115 , D20111 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JD014401 . 10.1029/2010JD014401 Hoffmann , L. , X. Xue , and M. J. Alexander , 2013 : A global view of stratospheric gravity wave hotspots

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Junhong Wei, Gergely Bölöni, and Ulrich Achatz

.49712757702 . 10.1002/qj.49712757702 Zhang , F. , N. Bei , R. Rotunno , C. Snyder , and C. C. Epifanio , 2007 : Mesoscale predictability of moist baroclinic waves: Convection-permitting experiments and multistage error growth dynamics . J. Atmos. Sci. , 64 , 3579 – 3594 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS4028.1 . 10.1175/JAS4028.1 Zhang , F. , M. Zhang , J. Wei , and S. Wang , 2013 : Month-long simulations of gravity waves over North America and North Atlantic in comparison with

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Benedikt Ehard, Peggy Achtert, Andreas Dörnbrack, Sonja Gisinger, Jörg Gumbel, Mikhail Khaplanov, Markus Rapp, and Johannes Wagner

guide to wavelet analysis . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 79 , 61 – 78 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0477(1998)079<0061:APGTWA>2.0.CO;2 . Vadas , S. , J. Yue , and T. Nakamura , 2012 : Mesospheric concentric gravity waves generated by multiple convective storms over the North American Great Plain . J. Geophys. Res. , 117 , D07113 , doi: 10.1029/2011JD017025 . Vaisala , 2014 : Vaisala Radiosonde RS92-SGP. Accessed 20 October 2014. [Available online at http://www.vaisala.com/Vaisala%20Documents

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