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Ailie J. E. Gallant, Steven J. Phipps, David J. Karoly, A. Brett Mullan, and Andrew M. Lorrey

( Wilson et al. 2010 ). However, we use it because of its proximity to the Niño-3.4 region. The reconstruction extends from AD 1607–1998. The second reconstruction of the Niño-3.4 index was generated from a network of 404 tree-ring width records in the southwest United States and Mexico (hereafter called TEXMEX) ( Cook et al. 2008 ). The tree-ring network utilizes the existence of teleconnections between North America and the tropical Pacific Ocean. The tree-ring records were used to develop a field

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Tessa R. Vance, Tas D. van Ommen, Mark A. J. Curran, Chris T. Plummer, and Andrew D. Moy

. The second and third EOFs of 500-mb GPH variability in the SH identify an atmospheric bridge, the Pacific and South American pattern (PSA) ( Mo and Paegle 2001 ). The PSA varies on an interannual basis but is on average the SH response to ENSO warm or cold events. During the austral winter prior to a mature El Niño (La Niña) event, a Rossby wave pattern of high–low–high (low–high–low) tropospheric pressure anomalies propagates from the CWEP through the South Pacific toward South America and the

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Steven J. Phipps, Helen V. McGregor, Joëlle Gergis, Ailie J. E. Gallant, Raphael Neukom, Samantha Stevenson, Duncan Ackerley, Josephine R. Brown, Matt J. Fischer, and Tas D. van Ommen

. USA , 104 , 3713 – 3718 , doi:10.1073/pnas.0605064103 . Baker , A. , C. Bradley , S. J. Phipps , M. Fischer , I. J. Fairchild , L. Fuller , C. Spötl , and C. Azcurra , 2012 : Millennial-length forward models and pseudoproxies of stalagmite δ 18 O: An example from NW Scotland . Climate Past , 8 , 1153 – 1167 , doi:10.5194/cp-8-1153-2012 . Bartlein , P. J. , and Coauthors , 1998 : Paleoclimate simulations for North America over the past 21,000 years: Features of

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