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Chuntao Liu, Earle R. Williams, Edward J. Zipser, and Gary Burns

for this, a uniform diurnal contribution from oceans was assumed that provided a better match to the Carnegie curve from an era when the diurnal variation of oceanic thunderstorms was largely unknown ( Whipple 1929 ). 2) The maximum in the thunder day curve coincides with afternoon thunderstorms in Africa (1400–1500 UTC), whereas the Carnegie curve is maximum when afternoon storms in South America are active (1900–2000 UTC). These discrepancies have been revisited on multiple occasions ( Whipple

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Chanh Q. Kieu and Da-Lin Zhang

propagate across the Atlantic and Central America and then into the eastern Pacific ( Avila and Pasch 1992 ). Numerous studies showed that the eastern Pacific TCG could occur in association with MCSs ( Bister and Emanuel 1997 ), easterly waves in the intertropical convergence zone ( Molinari et al. 2000 ; Dickinson and Molinari 2002 ), and the interaction of easterly waves with the Central American mountains ( Zehnder et al. 1999 ). Satellite observations revealed that the ITCZ may sometimes undulate

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Scott A. Braun, Michael T. Montgomery, Kevin J. Mallen, and Paul D. Reasor

system. At 1800 UTC 22 July ( Fig. 2b ), the center of circulation was along the Belize coast and convection was beginning to diminish as the system moved inland. As the circulation moved into the southern Bay of Campeche by 1200 UTC 23 July ( Fig. 2c ), there were scattered areas of convection over the Gulf, much of it fairly shallow (below ∼5 km). By 1800 UTC 23 July ( Fig. 2d ), the circulation continued to drift northwestward as some convection developed north of the center. NHC best-track data

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