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Ya Yang, Xiang Li, Jing Wang, and Dongliang Yuan

1. Introduction The advent of satellite remote sensing in the past few decades has facilitated the study of upper-ocean circulation greatly. In comparison, information about the subthermocline ocean circulation has been lacking until the construction of the Argo float arrays in the world oceans, which have provided unprecedented data coverage over the subsurface global oceans. Using the P-vector absolute geostrophic currents based on Argo profiles, Yuan et al. (2014) studied the mean North

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Arun Kumar, Jieshun Zhu, and Wanqiu Wang

also extend northeast into the extratropical Pacific oceans. The large explained variance might be due to atmospheric Rossby wave activity associated with the MJO-related convections. Over the land, except for the tropical Africa there are also local regions of larger variance explained in the middle Eurasian continent, Arabian Peninsula, part of Australia and western coastal and northeastern regions of the south American continent. For the north American continent, relatively larger value of

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Ewan Short, Claire L. Vincent, and Todd P. Lane

amplitude is just over 0.5 m s −1 . Along the Java Sea transects, the perturbations at 0500–0700 LST (1700–1900 LST) rapidly change sign km north of Java, where land breezes (sea breezes) from the north coast of Java and south coast of Borneo converge (diverge). All the transects show evidence of the winds changing direction along the coastline before they change direction farther offshore, consistent with the propagation behavior predicted by linear theory for the tropics ( Rotunno 1983 , p. 2006

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Giuseppe Torri, David K. Adams, Huiqun Wang, and Zhiming Kuang

, B. S. , 2019 : Connections between the Madden–Julian oscillation and surface temperatures in winter 2018 over eastern North America . Atmos. Sci. Lett. , 20 , e869 , . 10.1002/asl.869 Bechtold , P. , J.-P. Chaboureau , A. Beljaars , A. K. Betts , M. Köhler , M. Miller , and J.-L. Redelsperger , 2004 : The simulation of the diurnal cycle of convective precipitation over land in a global model . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 130 , 3119

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James H. Ruppert Jr. and Fuqing Zhang

, and J. Sun , 2014 : Comparison of the diurnal variations of warm-season precipitation for East Asia vs. North America downstream of the Tibetan Plateau vs. the Rocky Mountains . Atmos. Chem. Phys. , 14 , 10 741 – 10 759 , . 10.5194/acp-14-10741-2014 Zipser , E. J. , 1977 : Mesoscale and convective-scale downdrafts as distinct components of squall-line structure . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 105 , 1568 – 1589 ,

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Lei Song and Renguang Wu

. Johnson , S. B. Feldstein , and D. Pollard , 2011 : On the possible link between tropical convection and the Northern Hemisphere Arctic surface air temperature change between 1958 and 2001 . J. Climate , 24 , 4350 – 4367 , . 10.1175/2011JCLI4003.1 Lin , H. , 2015 : Subseasonal variability of North American wintertime surface air temperature . Climate Dyn. , 45 , 1137 – 1155 , . 10.1007/s00382

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Andung Bayu Sekaranom and Hirohiko Masunaga

a higher PR probability above 30 mm h −1 , while the TMI probability rapidly decreases at lower rain rates than the global average. Nevertheless, the overall characteristics found previously for MC also apply to the global tropics. Fig . 9. Comparison of PR (black solid), TMI (black dashed), and TMPA (gray dashed) exceedance probabilities calculated using long-term data from 1998 to 2014 for (a) global ocean, (b) global land, (c) east Pacific (ocean) 90°–130°W, 15°S–15°N, (d) South America (land

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Wei-Ting Chen, Shih-Pei Hsu, Yuan-Huai Tsai, and Chung-Hsiung Sui

influence weather and climate over remote places including East Asia ( Chang and Lau 1982 ; Lau and Chang 1987 ), North America ( Yanai and Tomita 1998 ; Yang et al. 2002 ; Chan and Li 2004 ), and Europe ( Neale and Slingo 2003 ). Convection over the SCS–MC region exhibits significant multiscale variability, which remains a great challenge to the global atmospheric models, owing to the difficulties in representing convective processes in the tropical environment with contrasting land–ocean difference

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Satoru Yokoi, Shuichi Mori, Fadli Syamsudin, Urip Haryoko, and Biao Geng

difference in the boundary layer, and we want to leave this topic for future work. d. Thermodynamic profile over the R/V Mirai Besides the wind environments examined thus far, thermodynamic environments may also play roles in the offshore migration. In particular, thermally unstable condition for cumulus convection is considered to be favorable for the offshore migration. Hassim et al. (2016) analyzed their numerical simulations of the offshore migration north of New Guinea Island and compared the

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Satoru Yokoi, Shuichi Mori, Masaki Katsumata, Biao Geng, Kazuaki Yasunaga, Fadli Syamsudin, Nurhayati, and Kunio Yoneyama

characteristics of the diurnal cycle depend on the MJO is known to be different in different regions. In the western coastal area of Sumatra Island in particular, the diurnal cycle of precipitation tends to be more distinct when the MJO convective envelope is located over the eastern Indian Ocean, whereas it becomes obscured when the envelope arrives at the Maritime Continent ( Fujita et al. 2011 ; Kamimera et al. 2012 ; Vincent and Lane 2017 ). On the other hand, the diurnal cycle off the north coast of

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