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Kyle Chudler, Weixin Xu, and Steven A. Rutledge

katabatic drainage winds from the mountain ranges enhanced offshore flow and therefore convergence with the westerlies. And in the North American Monsoon Experiment (NAME; Lang et al. 2007 ; Nesbitt et al. 2008 ), offshore movement of land-generated convection was determined to contribute a significant fraction of the offshore precipitation. Afternoon convection formed over the Sierra Madre Occidental, and then moved westward into the Gulf of California, often in the form of mesoscale convective

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Wei-Ting Chen, Shih-Pei Hsu, Yuan-Huai Tsai, and Chung-Hsiung Sui

influence weather and climate over remote places including East Asia ( Chang and Lau 1982 ; Lau and Chang 1987 ), North America ( Yanai and Tomita 1998 ; Yang et al. 2002 ; Chan and Li 2004 ), and Europe ( Neale and Slingo 2003 ). Convection over the SCS–MC region exhibits significant multiscale variability, which remains a great challenge to the global atmospheric models, owing to the difficulties in representing convective processes in the tropical environment with contrasting land–ocean difference

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Wei-Ting Chen, Chien-Ming Wu, and Hsi-Yen Ma

Bay of Bengal (BoB) and the South China Sea (SCS), as well as in western North Pacific (WNP), the monsoon domain in CAM5 AMIP is smaller than either observational estimate, and within the simulated monsoon domain, the monsoon intensity is also weaker than both observations. Fig . 1. (a) Monsoon intensity (shading) and the 850-hPa wind differences between summer and winter (vectors; m s −1 ) within the Asian monsoon domain (green line). Following Wang and Ding (2008) , Wang et al. (2011) , and

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Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Eric D. Maloney, Benjamin A. Toms, Stephen M. Saleeby, and Susan C. van den Heever

utilized. RAMS uses a sigma terrain-following coordinate system. The time step is 5 s with output saved every 30 min. Fig . 1. Model domain with true topography. The area north of the dashed line is defined as northern Luzon and used in some figures below. Three simulations were completed to address the effect of topography on the Luzon DCP through different BSISO regimes. The simulations were identical except for the height of topography in each run. The control simulation used true topography and is

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Sebastian Essink, Verena Hormann, Luca R. Centurioni, and Amala Mahadevan

generated by massive seasonal freshwater fluxes, mainly from major rivers in the north, and intense precipitation during the southwest monsoon. The shallow freshwater cap affects the evolution of the sea surface temperature (SST; Jaeger and Mahadevan 2018 ) and the upper-ocean’s heat content ( Shroyer et al. 2016 ; Mahadevan et al. 2016 ), both of which can alter the air–sea fluxes and, hence, affect the monsoon dynamics. The Air–Sea Interaction Regional Initiative (ASIRI; Lucas et al. 2014

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Michael B. Natoli and Eric D. Maloney

zonal wind. Statistical significance calculated with a bootstrap method is shown as black dots. The strength of the land–sea breeze circulation is estimated in Fig. 11b , which shows the BSISO anomalies of the diurnal amplitude of surface zonal wind. For coastlines oriented north to south, the zonal wind can be thought of as the onshore/offshore component of the wind. Positive anomalies of this quantity indicate a strengthened sea-breeze circulation, or, that the wind is more onshore during the

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