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David J. Stensrud

monsoon convection is much more complex with a strong diurnal cycle. To further explore the influence of monsoon convection on the large-scale flow pattern, a case study of the evolution of deep convection and the large-scale flow over a 6-day period during the North American monsoon (NAM) is investigated using a numerical modeling approach. The goal is to examine the upscale response to deep convection in a numerical weather prediction model as determined by comparing model runs with and without the

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Andrew Newman and Richard H. Johnson

temperature anomaly can extend down to near 700 hPa ( Kelly and Mock 1982 ; Whitfield and Lyons 1992 ). TUTT lows in the North American monsoon (NAM) region typically form from the North Atlantic TUTT, or thinning troughs associated with wave breaking over Texas or the western Gulf of Mexico on the downstream side of the upper-level monsoonal ridge ( Thorncroft et al. 1993 ). They are then advected westward south of the monsoonal ridge, as depicted in Fig. 1 for the 12–14 July case observed during the

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Stefan Sobolowski, Gavin Gong, and Mingfang Ting

. Because of its considerable spatiotemporal variation, and the striking geographical differences between the Northern Hemisphere (NH) landmasses, the influence of snow on atmospheric circulation is an area of ongoing research. In particular, the nature of the large-scale stationary wave response to anomalous North American (NA) snow cover and its associated mechanisms remains largely unexplored. Physically based snow–climate teleconnections have been described more often for Eurasia than for NA. This

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George S. Benton and Mariano A. Estoque

462VOLUME 11JOURNAL OF METEOROLOGYWATER-VAPOR TRANSFER OVER THE NORTH AMERICAN CONTINENT By George S. Benton and Mariano A. Estoque Johns Hopkins University 1.2 (Original manuscript received 18 January 1954 ; revised manuscript received 19 June 1954)ABSTRACTThe transfer of water in vapor form by the atmosphere is presented for the calendar year 1949. Monthlyand seasonal patterns of moisture flow are evaluated, and it is shown that there is a close

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Michael Goss and Steven B. Feldstein

convective heating over the equatorial Pacific basin. For example, studies such as Ting and Sardeshmukh (1993) using idealized heating in a dry general circulation model (GCM), and Barsugli and Sardeshmukh (2002) using SST forcing in a simple GCM with parameterized convection, both show that the modeled spatial pattern response over the extratropical North Pacific and North America is highly sensitive to the longitudinal location of the heating source over the equatorial Pacific. Additionally, a

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David James Brayshaw, Brian Hoskins, and Michael Blackburn

al. 2005 ; Inatsu et al. 2002 ), introducing a slight southwest–northeast tilt to the track. Simulations investigating the effect of realistic orographic distributions have tended to show that the mountains act to localize the storm track into the ocean basins ( Wilson et al. 2009 ; Broccoli and Manabe 1992 ; Manabe and Broccoli 1990 ). The large-scale flow patterns generated by orography were also shown to contribute significantly to the cooling of northeastern North America (by northwesterly

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Xianan Jiang, Ngar-Cheung Lau, Isaac M. Held, and Jeffrey J. Ploshay

Pielke 1981 ; Paegle and McLawhorn 1983 ; Astling et al. 1985 ; McCorcle 1988 ; Fast and McCorcle 1990 ; Zhong et al. 1996 ; Helfand and Schubert 1995 ; and others). Most of these studies were based on idealized 1D or 2D models, and the relative importance of various mechanisms for the observed LLJ has not been definitively illustrated. Capitalizing on the recent release of high-resolution North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) and the new-generation atmospheric general circulation model

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Wan-cheng Chiu

*JOURNAL OF METEOROLOGY VOLUME 1764THE WIND AND TEMPERATURE SPECTRA OF THE UPPER TROPOSPHERE AND LOWER STRATOSPHERE OVER NORTH AMERICA Wan-cheng Chiu New York University(Original manuscript received 25 April 1959 ; revised manuscript received 6 July 1959) ABSTRACTThe wind and temperature spectra of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over selected NorthAmerican stations are constructed, by means of Tukey's method, from rawinsonde and

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Mingfang Ting and Hailan Wang

(1961) , who suggested that the LLJ is similar in mechanism to the western boundary currents in the ocean. Because of the physical blocking of the North American Cordillera, the westward-flowing trade winds are forced to turn northward upon encountering the eastern slope of the Sierra Oriental, while the equatorial side of the trade wind flow continues westward to cross Central America to reach the eastern Pacific. From potential vorticity conservation, a northward flowing air column will have to

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Erro O. Holopainen, Ngar-Cheung Lau, and Abraham H. Oort

2234JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCESVOLUME 31 .A Diagnostic Study of the Time-Averaged Budget of Atmospheric Zonal Momentum over North America EERO 0. HOLOPAINEN' AND NGAR-CHEUNG LAUGeophysical Fluid Dynamics Program, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540 ABRAHAM H. OORTGeophysical Fluid Dynamics LaboratorylNOAA, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540 (Manuscript received 1 April 1980, in final form 16 June 1980)ABSTRACT `The terms in the time-mean zonal

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