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D. E. Harrison and Mark Carson

. The North Pacific exhibits a broad band of warming from the coast out into the open sea all along the Americas; it is strongest and clearest between Baja California and southern Alaska. The central North Pacific exhibits equally strong cooling, particularly between about 20° and 50°N, which transitions to a less well defined band of warming between about 10° and 20°N. The Tropics are broadly cooling apart from the warming in the east noted above. There are spatially complex patterns of warming and

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Victor Zlotnicki, John Wahr, Ichiro Fukumori, and Yuhe T. Song

about 1998, the index has been on a downward trend, which is captured by the QuikSCAT wind data (available since 1999). The extent to which the ACC weakens as the wind does over a few years contains useful information on what controls interannual ACC variability. Trends in mass measured by GRACE, especially near Antarctica, North America, or Asia, should first be thought of as being caused by postglacial rebound [PGR, or glacial isostatic adjustment; for Antarctica in particular, see Velicogna and

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Martin Losch and Patrick Heimbach

sensitivity study using the MITgcm adjoint was undertaken by Marotzke et al. (1999) , who investigated the (tangent) linear sensitivity of the meridional heat transport in the Atlantic. Bugnion (2001) and Köhl (2005) extended this study to climate time scales and to higher resolution, respectively. Other examples are the study of SST anomalies in the North Atlantic ( Junge and Haine 2001 ), midlatitude–ENSO teleconnection mechanisms ( Galanti and Tziperman 2003 ; Galanti et al. 2002 ), the deep

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Walter Munk and Bruce Bills

1. Introduction An early association of tides and climate was based on energetics. Cold, dense water formed in the North Atlantic would fill up the global oceans in a few thousand years were it not for downward mixing from the warm surface layers. Mixing a stratified fluid takes energy; the required rate of energy expenditure was estimated at 2 TW ( Munk and Wunsch 1998 ). Global tidal dissipation is 3.5 TW, two-thirds in marginal seas, one-third in the pelagic 1 oceans, suggesting a tidal

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Rui M. Ponte and Sergey V. Vinogradov

(2004) and are thus used in this section. Solutions for S 1 and S 2 , obtained with forcing by the climatological air tides of Ray and Ponte (2003) , are shown in Fig. 2 . The amplitude and phase of ζ are obtained by harmonic analysis of the model solution once it becomes stationary in time. There are clear signs of a nonisostatic response, as inferred by the relatively large amplitudes, particularly around some boundaries (e.g., west coast of North America, Arabian Sea), in comparison with

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