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Xiaohui Ma, Ping Chang, R. Saravanan, Dexing Wu, Xiaopei Lin, Lixin Wu, and Xiuquan Wan

dipole-like structure with a positive anomaly in the southeastern North Pacific and a negative anomaly in the northern part of North Pacific, suggesting a southward shift of the upper-level storm track. The most significant change in the upper-level storm track occurs downstream of the KER in the southeastern North Pacific basin close to the North American continent. A similar pattern of Pacific storm track changes is obtained when the SVD analysis was applied to 〈 υ ′ υ ′〉 and winter mean SLP

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Akira Kuwano-Yoshida and Shoshiro Minobe

CNTL and SMTHK. The jet response affects moisture transport and the precipitation distribution. The westerly horizontal moisture flux in CNTL is weaker than that in SMTHK because of the weaker jet in the NEP; thus, precipitation along the west coast of North America decreases ( Fig. 10 ), whereas precipitation increases southeast of Hawaii. Yoshiike and Kawamura (2009) suggested that downstream teleconnection of explosive cyclone events over the NWP affects Kona storms, damaging the Hawaiian

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Satoru Okajima, Hisashi Nakamura, Kazuaki Nishii, Takafumi Miyasaka, and Akira Kuwano-Yoshida

the climatological-mean velocity of 1000-hPa westerlies (black contoured every 2.5 m s −1 ; dashed for easterlies) and SST anomalies (dashed for +1°C and solid for +2°C). (c),(d) As in (a),(b), but for MID. d. Downstream influence toward North America In October 2011, upper-tropospheric anticyclonic anomalies were observed over southeastern Canada and the northern United States and over the U.S. West Coast as well ( Fig. 9a ), giving rise to abnormal dryness and warmth locally ( Figs. 10a

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Takuya Nakanowatari, Humio Mitsudera, Tatsuo Motoi, Ichiro Ishikawa, Kay I. Ohshima, and Masaaki Wakatsuchi

.1029/JC094iC08p10937 . Miller , A. J. , D. R. Cayan , and W. B. White , 1998 : A westward-intensified decadal change in the North Pacific thermocline and gyre-scale circulation . J. Climate , 11 , 3112 – 3127 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(1998)011<3112:AWIDCI>2.0.CO;2 . Minobe , S. , 1997 : A 50–70 year climatic oscillation over the North Pacific and North America . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 24 , 683 – 686 , doi: 10.1029/97GL00504 . Minobe , S. , 2000 : Spatio-temporal structure of the

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Young-Oh Kwon and Terrence M. Joyce

autocorrelation ( Trenberth 1984 ; Bretherton et al. 1999 ). e. Other data and regressions Daily indices for the Pacific–North American (PNA) teleconnection and the Arctic Oscillation (AO) for the corresponding period were downloaded from the NOAA Climate Prediction Center ( http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/ ). Note that these daily PNA and AO indices are nearly orthogonal ( r = ~−0.1) but not completely since the definition used by the Climate Prediction Center does not require them to be orthogonal

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Xiaohui Ma, Ping Chang, R. Saravanan, Raffaele Montuoro, Hisashi Nakamura, Dexing Wu, Xiaopei Lin, and Lixin Wu

storm track at 300 hPa, which is much stronger, develops farther downstream and reaches a maximum over the eastern North Pacific and North American continent ( Fig. 3b ). The simulated storm track at 850 and 300 hPa in HR-CTRL ( Figs. 3c,d ) displays similar spatial patterns and axis of maxima as in ERA-Interim. However, storm-track strength in HR-CTRL is slightly stronger than that in the reanalysis possibly owing to the physics parameterizations and the higher spatial resolution used in the WRF

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Adèle Révelard, Claude Frankignoul, Nathalie Sennéchael, Young-Oh Kwon, and Bo Qiu

The atmospheric response to KE fluctuations has significant impacts on near-surface climate. As expected from the SST signature of the KE variability, the air temperature in the KOE region is warmer ( Fig. 10a ). There is also a significant warming over western and central North America, northeastern Asia, and northern Africa. This warming is likely the cause of the concomitant reduced snow cover extent seen in Fig. 10b , since it only appears when the KE index leads by at least 2 months

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Masayo Ogi, Bunmei Taguchi, Meiji Honda, David G. Barber, and Søren Rysgaard

on the annual AO index ( Fig. 5b ) shows negative anomalies over the Eurasian continent and positive anomalies over North America and Greenland when the AO phase is negative. The pattern, particularly the one over Eurasia, is also similar to ones regressed onto both the Arctic and Okhotsk sea-ice indices that are negative anomalies over the Far East ( Figs. 4c and 4d ), indicating that both winter and summer AO strongly influences the air temperature over the Eurasia continent ( Thompson and

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Bunmei Taguchi and Niklas Schneider

Pacific decadal variability in the Community Climate System Model version 2 . J. Climate , 20 , 2416 – 2433 , doi: 10.1175/JCLI4103.1 . Latif , M. , and T. P. Barnett , 1994 : Causes of decadal climate variability over the North Pacific and North America . Science , 266 , 634 – 637 , doi: 10.1126/science.266.5185.634 . Liu , Z. , 1999 : Forced planetary wave response in a thermocline gyre . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 29 , 1036 – 1055 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0485(1999)029<1036:FPWRIA>2.0.CO;2

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Hyodae Seo, Young-Oh Kwon, Terrence M. Joyce, and Caroline C. Ummenhofer

of North America with the maximum over Grand Banks ( Hoskins and Valdes 1990 ). The storm track is enhanced in the same region with the high σ Bl , in addition to the downstream enhancement east of Greenland ( Chang et al. 2002 ). The overall similarity between NCEP-1 and the CTL confirms that the present model is capable of representing both the internal variability and the low-level atmospheric baroclinicity during the Northern Hemisphere winter. b. The time-mean response The left two columns

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