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Richard R. Heim Jr. and Michael J. Brewer

problem on a continental and global scale (see Table 1 for the distinction between the Global Drought Monitor, Global Drought Monitor Portal, Global Drought Information System, and Global Drought Early Warning System). Table 1. Acronyms used in this paper. Every continent has regions and climates that are susceptible to drought, including semiarid areas that are especially vulnerable to drought. In North America and Europe today, drought impacts are largely economic ( Markandya 2010 ). However, in

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Kingtse C. Mo, Lindsey N. Long, and Jae-Kyung E. Schemm

. SM data are taken from the North American Land Data Assimilation Systems (NLDAS) from the UW because no long-term observed dataset is available. The SM ensemble members are outputs from three land surface models (LSMs): the Variable Infiltration Capacity model (VIC) ( Liang et al. 1994 ; Liang et al. 1996 ), Noah model ( Koren et al. 1999 ; Ek et al. 2003 ), and Sacramento model (SAC) ( Burnash et al. 1973 ). The dataset covers the period from 1916 to 2006. Model descriptions and properties can

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Charles W. Lafon and Steven M. Quiring

events. The trend varies within the region ( Keim 1997 ), but for the eastern United States as a whole it may portend increasing wildfire occurrences. The fire–climate relationships that we have considered here likely influence biogeographic distributions. Several fire-dependent species—for example, the mountain golden heather ( Hudsonia montana Nutt.; cf. USFWS 2011 ), eastern turkeybeard [ Xerophyllum asphodeloides (L.) Nutt.; cf. Flora of North America Editorial Committee 1993 ], and Table

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Sergio M. Vicente-Serrano, Santiago Beguería, Jorge Lorenzo-Lacruz, Jesús Julio Camarero, Juan I. López-Moreno, Cesar Azorin-Molina, Jesús Revuelto, Enrique Morán-Tejeda, and Arturo Sanchez-Lorenzo

found for the Atlantic basins of North America, the basins of central Europe, and some basins of South America and Africa. On the contrary, poor correlations were found in the Asian basins, mainly those that drain to the Arctic Ocean. Nevertheless, in the latter basins, when monthly correlations were analyzed separately, noticeable seasonal impacts were observed since correlations were much higher in July ( Figure 4c ) than in January ( Figure 4b ). In addition, in these zones it is clearly observed

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Di Long, Bridget R. Scanlon, D. Nelun Fernando, Lei Meng, and Steven M. Quiring

.1029/2009JD013368 . Jones , P. D. , M. New , D. E. Parker , S. Martin , and I. G. Rigor , 1999 : Surface air temperature and its changes over the past 150 years . Rev. Geophys. , 37 , 173 – 199 . Karl , T. R. , G. A. Meehl , C. D. Miller , S. J. Hassol , A. M. Waple , and W. L. Murray , 2008 : Weather and climate extremes in a changing climate. Regions of focus: North America, Hawaii, Caribbean, and U.S. Pacific Islands. U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and

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Daniel J. McEvoy, Justin L. Huntington, John T. Abatzoglou, and Laura M. Edwards

. Cane , and D. W. Stahle , 2007 : North American drought: Reconstructions, causes, and consequences . Earth Sci. Rev. , 81 , 93 – 134 . Daly , C. , R. P. Neilson , and D. L. Phillips , 1994 : A statistical-topographic model for mapping climatological precipitation over mountainous terrain . J. Appl. Meteor. , 33 , 140 – 158 . Greenwood , J. A. , J. M. Landwehr , N. C. Matalas , and J. R. Wallis , 1979 : Probability weighted moments: Definition and relation to

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