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Agustín Robles-Morua, Enrique R. Vivoni, and Alex S. Mayer

1. Introduction Arid and semiarid regions of the southwest United States and northwest Mexico are influenced significantly by the North American monsoon (NAM). This atmospheric circulation pattern is responsible for generating a large proportion of the annual rainfall, ranging from 40% to 80% (e.g., Douglas et al. 1993 ; Vivoni et al. 2008 ) and up to 85% of the annual streamflow during July, August, and September ( Gochis et al. 2006 ). The in-phase relationship between precipitation and

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Enrique R. Vivoni

1. Introduction Seasonal greening of drought-deciduous ecosystems in semiarid regions significantly alters the surface energy balance, including evapotranspiration ET (e.g., Montaldo et al. 2005 ; Watts et al. 2007 ; Vivoni et al. 2008 ). Relatively little is known about the impacts of vegetation dynamics on the catchment response during the North American monsoon (NAM; July–September), despite quantification of these dynamics at regional scales ( Forzieri et al. 2011 ). Quantifying the

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Craig R. Ferguson, Eric F. Wood, and Raghuveer K. Vinukollu

provided in Ferguson and Wood (2010) . In that study, daytime (~1330 LT) footprint retrievals, as well as the 0.125° gridded fields, were extensively evaluated over CONUS and Africa for a period of 6 years (2002–08) using matchups at over 2000 surface meteorological stations and additionally over CONUS using the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS; Mitchell et al. 2004 ) model-based forcing fields. The retrievals were carefully analyzed for sensitivity across a range of surface and

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Keith J. Harding and Peter K. Snyder

orographically enhanced precipitation downwind of irrigated areas in southern Spain. Segal et al. (1998) simulated slight continentwide increases in precipitation over North America using a regional climate model, while Sacks et al. (2009) simulated slight global precipitation increases over land due to irrigation. In Part I of this study ( Harding and Snyder 2012 , hereafter HS2012 ), precipitation increases of 1% from irrigation were simulated regionwide over the northern Great Plains and Midwest

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Joseph A. Santanello Jr., Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Aaron Kennedy, and Sujay V. Kumar

Transfer Model (RRTM; Skamarock et al. 2005 ) longwave radiation, Goddard shortwave radiation, and the Monin–Obukhov surface layer scheme. The North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) was used for atmospheric initialization and lateral boundary conditions using 3-hourly nudging. The vertical resolution of NU-WRF was specified as 43 vertical levels, with the lowest model level ~24 m above the surface, which was designed to improve resolution in the lower layers (PBL) relative to default configurations

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Keith J. Harding and Peter K. Snyder

irrigation using mesoscale models ( Pielke et al. 1997 ; Segal et al. 1998 ), regional atmospheric models ( Adegoke et al. 2003 ; Baidya Roy et al. 2003 ; De Ridder and Gallée 1998 ), global climate models (GCMs; Lee et al. 2011 ; Puma and Cook 2010 ; Sacks et al. 2009 ), and offline land surface models (LSMs; Ozdogan et al. 2010 ). Segal et al. (1998) simulated a slight increase in precipitation over North America while Sacks et al. (2009) simulated a 1.24% June–August increase in

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Xubin Zeng, Zhuo Wang, and Aihui Wang

Noah land surface model using data from a fair-weather IHOP_2000 day with heterogeneous surface fluxes . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 136 , 4915 – 4941 . Mahrt, L. , 2010 : Variability and maintenance of turbulence in the very stable boundary layer . Bound.-Layer Meteor. , 135 , 1 – 18 , doi:10.1007/s10546-009-9463-6 . Mitchell, K. , and Coauthors , 2004 : The multi-institution North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS): Utilizing multiple GCIP products and partners in a continental

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