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George Kallos, Marina Astitha, Petros Katsafados, and Chris Spyrou

America and is considered to be an extension of the previous path. This transport pattern has not yet been well documented. Preliminary results concerning particulate sulfate are discussed in the next sections of this paper. The third path is from North America toward Europe. This path has been documented through experimental campaigns and modeling during the last two decades. This transport can occur over the North Atlantic Ocean with the aid of the North Atlantic Ocean anticyclone (see references in

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Francis S. Binkowski, Saravanan Arunachalam, Zachariah Adelman, and Joseph P. Pinto

during the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Science Mission’s Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment–North America (INTEX-NA). Details for this experiment were available on the Internet at the time of writing ( http://cloud1.arc.nasa.gov/intex-na/ ). We will compare the results from two versions of CMAQ—CMAQ, version 4.5, as it was released to the user community in 2005 and our new version with the observations made during that experimental period. The results of

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M. Talat Odman, Yongtao Hu, Alper Unal, Armistead G. Russell, and James W. Boylan

2018-OTW includes the clean air interstate rule. It was assumed that any potential feedback of future land use and emissions on the meteorology would be negligible. Therefore meteorological inputs developed for the July 2001 and January 2002 periods were also used for the 2018 simulations. Biogenic emissions were also assumed to remain constant in the future. Initial and boundary conditions were derived from a 36-km resolution simulation of 2018 over North America. A two-day ramp-up period was used

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Golam Sarwar and Prakash V. Bhave

. Kimura , C. B. Mullins , G. Yarwood , and J. D. Neece , 2003b : Development of a chlorine mechanism for use in the Carbon Bond IV chemistry model. J. Geophys. Res. , 108 . 4145, doi:10.1029/2002JD002432 . Werner , A. , C. Frey , B. Haneke , J. Zheng , and W. Pennell , 2005 : Strengths and weaknesses of current emissions inventories. Improving Emissions Inventories for Effective Air Quality Management across North America, NARSTO Assessment NARSTO-05-001, 145

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Steven R. Hanna, Robert Paine, David Heinold, Elizabeth Kintigh, and Dan Baker

uncertainty resulting from surface roughness variations. Consequently, accounting for this difference in ISCST3 options, it can be concluded that the uncertainty of ISCST3 is slightly larger than that of AERMOD. Acknowledgments This research has been sponsored by the American Petroleum Institute (API), with Howard Feldman and Richard Karp as the program managers. Prof. H.C. Frey of North Carolina State University is a consultant on the project and has contributed many useful ideas and comments. The

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C. Hogrefe, W. Hao, K. Civerolo, J.-Y. Ku, G. Sistla, R. S. Gaza, L. Sedefian, K. Schere, A. Gilliland, and R. Mathur

ensemble of seven real-time ozone forecasts over eastern North America during the summer of 2004. J. Geophys. Res. , 110 . D21307, doi:10.1029/2005JD005858 . McQueen , J. , and Coauthors , 2004 : Update of the Eta-CMAQ forecast model run at NCEP operations and its performance for the summer 2004. Extended Abstracts, Models-3 Conf., Chapel Hill, NC, Community Modeling and Analysis System, 9 pp. [Available online at http://www.cmascenter.org/conference/2004/abstracts

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Jesse O. Bash, Patricia Bresnahan, and David R. Miller

contaminated soils: 1. Uptake, portioning, and emission to the atmosphere. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. , 17 , 2063 – 2071 . Lin , C-J. , P. Pongprueksa , S. E. Lindberg , S. O. Pehkonen , D. Byun , and C. Jang , 2006 : Scientific uncertainties in atmospheric mercury models. I: Model science evaluation. Atmos. Environ. , 40 , 2911 – 2928 . Lin , X. , and Y. Tao , 2003 : A numerical modelling study on regional mercury budget for eastern North America. Atmos. Chem. Phys. , 3

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