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Young-Kwon Lim, Ming Cai, Eugenia Kalnay, and Liming Zhou

) The two surface observation datasets (CRU and GHCN) in each panel on the left are nearly indistinguishable ( Figs. 1a–d ), showing a gradual upward trend of surface temperature over Asia, Europe, North and South America, and the Africa region. The two reanalyses are also in remarkable agreement with the observations in terms of capturing the interannual variability and the long-term trends. (ii) Nevertheless, it is evident that the reanalyses exhibit a smaller warming trend than observations, as

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K. W. Oleson, G. B. Bonan, J. Feddema, and M. Vertenstein

relationship was found for maximum heat island intensity as a function of population. Different regression coefficients were required for North American and European settlements because European settlements were found to have smaller heat islands for a given city size. Oke (1981) extended this study and discovered that the North American and European datasets could be merged into a single relationship by regressing maximum heat island intensity against sky-view factor or height-to-width ratio H / W

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K. W. Oleson, G. B. Bonan, J. Feddema, M. Vertenstein, and C. S. B. Grimmond

important yet less studied aspect of anthropogenic land use/land cover change in climate science. Although currently only about 1%–3% of the global land surface is urbanized, the spatial extent and intensity of urban development are expected to increase dramatically in the future ( Shepherd 2005 ). More than one-half of the world’s population currently lives in urban areas, and in Europe, North America, and Japan at least 80% of the population resides in urban areas ( Elvidge et al. 2004 ). Policymakers

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