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Peter J. Lamb, Diane H. Portis, and Abraham Zangvil

balancing E − P and controlling P at both monthly and daily scales. Conversely, regional moisture recycling is rather small even at the daily scale. These findings may appear to differ from other results that have identified central North America as a region of especially strong coupling between soil moisture and P (e.g., Koster et al. 2004 , 2006 ; Wang et al. 2007 ; Dirmeyer et al. 2009 ; Zeng et al. 2010 ). However, it is important to note that our research employed a complete regional and

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Kerry H. Cook and Edward K. Vizy

rainfall and the tropical circulation/convection on intraseasonal to interannual timescales . J. Climate , 13 , 3915 – 3939 . Ninomiya , K. , 2008 : Similarities and differences among the South Indian Ocean convergence zone, North American convergence zone, and other subtropical convergence zones simulated using an AGCM . J. Meteor. Soc. Japan , 86 , 141 – 165 . Patricola , C. M. , and K. H. Cook , 2010 : Northern African climate at the end of the twenty-first century: An integrated

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Susan Stillman, Xubin Zeng, and Michael G. Bosilovich

annual cycle of precipitation in southeastern Arizona is characterized by a maximum in July and a secondary broader peak with its maximum in December and little to no springtime precipitation ( Fig. 1 ). During the July–September period, encompassing most of the North American monsoon in this area, Pobs receives 170 mm of rain on average, or 62% of the annual total. All nonmodel products have mean annual cycles that show the timing of the peaks correctly. Fig . 1. Average monthly precipitation total

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Robert A. Clark III, Zachary L. Flamig, Humberto Vergara, Yang Hong, Jonathan J. Gourley, Daniel J. Mandl, Stuart Frye, Matthew Handy, and Maria Patterson

nation’s population lives in the northeastern regions (Caprivi and Kavango), abutting Namibia’s borders with Angola and Zambia, and an additional 46% of the population—over 800,000 people—resides in north-central Namibia (Oshikoto, Ohangwena, Oshana, and Omusati; National Planning Commission 2012 ). This densely populated region represents less than 15% of the total land area ( Rukandema et al. 2009 ) and experiences variable, sometimes flooding, rain with an annual median value of 420–480 mm in the

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Wassila M. Thiaw and Vadlamani B. Kumar

. Hydrometeor. , 8 , 38 – 55 , doi: 10.1175/JHM560.1 . Kalnay , E. , and Coauthors , 1996 : The NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 77 , 437 – 471 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0477(1996)077<0437:TNYRP>2.0.CO;2 . Kirtman , and Coauthors , 2014 : The North American Multimodel Ensemble (NMME): Phase-1 seasonal to interannual prediction; phase-2 toward developing intraseasonal prediction . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 95 , 585 – 601 , doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00050.1 . Kogan , F

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Rosalind Cornforth, Douglas J. Parker, Mariane Diop-Kane, Andreas H. Fink, Jean-Philippe Lafore, Arlene Laing, Ernest Afiesimama, Jim Caughey, Aida Diongue-Niang, Abdou Kassimou, Peter Lamb, Benjamin Lamptey, Zilore Mumba, Ifeanyi Nnodu, Jerome Omotosho, Steve Palmer, Patrick Parrish, Leon-Guy Razafindrakoto, Wassila Thiaw, Chris Thorncroft, and Adrian Tompkins

chapter 1 is likely one of the most complete and up-to-date climate references for the West African monsoon (WAM) region. Fig . 1. The WAM in July, depicted in (a) a map showing the major climate features and (b) a north–south meridional cross section between 10°W and 10°E with classical weather zones A–D. Shown are positions of the intertropical discontinuity [ITD, also known as the intertropical front (ITF)]; upper-level jet steams [AEJ, tropical easterly jet (TEJ)/easterly jet (EJ), and subtropical

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John G. Dwyer, Michela Biasutti, and Adam H. Sobel

, 21 , 5145 – 5153 , doi: 10.1175/2008JCLI2292.1 . Kitoh , A. , and O. Arakawa , 1999 : On overestimation of tropical precipitation by an atmospheric GCM with prescribed SST . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 26 , 2965 – 2968 , doi: 10.1029/1999GL900616 . Kutzbach , J. , 1967 : Empirical eigenvectors of sea-level pressure, surface temperature and precipitation complexes over North America . J. Appl. Meteor. , 6 , 791 – 802 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0450(1967)006<0791:EEOSLP>2.0.CO;2 . Li , T. , and

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Thomas Engel, Andreas H. Fink, Peter Knippertz, Gregor Pante, and Jan Bliefernicht

and 2230 UTC seem to have only produced traces of rainfall at Dakar-Yoff. The rainfall distribution in the course of 26 August 2012 differed from the climatological diurnal cycle of precipitation over Dakar, as analyzed by Sane et al. (2012) , who found a dominant peak at 1500–1700 UTC and a second one at 0900–1100 UTC with lower rain rates. Figure 7 shows the evolution of the thunderstorm over Dakar with the AMSU-B and MHS measurements. A mostly south–north-oriented band with several cells of

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